Types of Societies in Sociology Video & Lesson Transcript



have you ever wondered what society was like before your lifetime maybe you wonder in what ways has society transformed in the past few centuries human beings have created and lived in several types of societies throughout history sociologists have classified the different types of societies into six categories each of which possess their own unique characteristics hunting and gathering societies pastoral societies horticultural societies agriculture societies industrial societies post-industrial societies hunting and gathering societies are the earliest form of society the members survive primarily by hunting trapping fishing and gathering edible plants the majority of the members time is spent looking for and gathering food a hunting and gathering society has five characteristics one family is the Society's primary institution family determines the distribution of food and how to socialize children to these societies are small compared to the others they generally have less than fifty members three hunting and gathering societies are nomadic which means that they move constantly in order to find food in water for members of hunting and gathering societies are mutually dependent upon each other five although there is equal division of labour among the members of hunting and gathering societies there is a division of labour based on sex men are typically responsible for hunting and women are typically gatherers pastoral societies began around 12,000 years ago these societies rely on products obtained through the domestication and breeding of animals for transportation and food pastoral societies are common in areas where crops cannot be supported for example in North Africa unlike hunting and gathering societies pastoral societies only have to move when the land in which the animals graze is no longer usable pastoral societies also allowed for job specialization since not everyone is needed to gather or hunt for food for example while some people breed animals others are able to produce tools or clothing which allows for specialized in these areas horticultural societies emerge between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago in Latin America Asia and parts of the Middle East these societies rely on the cultivation of fruits vegetables and plants in order to survive horticultural societies are often forced to relocate when the resources of the land are depleted or when the water supplies decrease also referred to as agrarian societies agricultural societies rely on the use of technology in order to cultivate crops in large areas including wheat rice and corn the technological advances led to an increase in food supplies an increase in population and the development of trade centres this period of technological changes is referred to as the agricultural revolution and begin around 8,500 years ago agricultural societies developed roughly in this order animals are used to pull plows ploughing allows for cultivation of larger areas of land soil aeration caused by ploughing leads to higher crop yields over longer periods of time high volumes of food production allow people to build permanent homes in a single location towns develop which eventually grow into cities jobs specialization increases as high yield crops allow people to focus on skills and crafts other than farming fewer people are involved with food production and economies diversify as a result industrial societies were developed with the Industrial Revolution that started around 1769 the Industrial Revolution began with England's improvement and use of the steam engine as a way to power machines industrial societies rely on advanced energy sources in order to run machinery changes that occurred in industrialized societies include innovations in transportation including the creation of automobiles the train and steamship newly developed transportations allowed people and goods to travel longer distances since fewer people were needed to cultivate food urban societies were developed for the first time more people lived in or near major cities than in farming areas urban communities were developed the development of mass forms of communication increased job specialization and the ability to harness electricity post-industrial societies have emerged in recent decades rather than focusing on production these societies are economically focused on providing services and technology the development and advancement of computer technology television and the creation of radio are all associated with the development of post-industrial societies the three characteristics associated with a post-industrial society are one focus on ideas instead of tangible goods as a driving force and economy to need for higher education due to the increased focus on information and technology three shift in work place from cities to homes as technological advances have allowed work to be conducted in places other than offices there have been six types of societies throughout history hunting and gathering societies pastoral societies horticultural societies agricultural societies industrial societies post-industrial societies hunting and gathering societies are the earliest form of society while post-industrial is the most recent modern day America is an example of a post-industrial society that is driven by ideas technology and services

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