Turtle | Wikipedia audio article


Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines
(or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their
ribs and acting as a shield. “Turtle” may refer to the order as a whole
(American English) or to fresh-water and sea-dwelling testudines (British English). The order Testudines includes both extant
(living) and extinct species. The earliest known members of this group date
from the Middle Jurassic, making turtles one of the oldest reptile groups and a more ancient
group than snakes or crocodilians. Of the 356 known species alive today, some
are highly endangered.Turtles are ectotherms—animals commonly called cold-blooded—meaning that
their internal temperature varies according to the ambient environment. However, because of their high metabolic rate,
leatherback sea turtles have a body temperature that is noticeably higher than that of the
surrounding water. Turtles are classified as amniotes, along
with other reptiles, birds, and mammals. Like other amniotes, turtles breathe air and
do not lay eggs underwater, although many species live in or around water. The study of turtles is called cheloniology,
after the Greek word for turtle. It is also sometimes called testudinology,
after the Latin name for turtles.==Naming and etymology==Differences exist in usage of the common terms
turtle, tortoise, and terrapin, depending on the variety of English being used. These terms are common names and do not reflect
precise biological or taxonomic distinctions.Turtle may either refer to the order as a whole,
or to particular turtles that make up a form taxon that is not monophyletic, or may be
limited to only aquatic species. Tortoise usually refers to any land-dwelling,
non-swimming chelonian. Terrapin is used to describe several species
of small, edible, hard-shell turtles, typically those found in brackish waters. In North America, all chelonians are commonly
called turtles. Tortoise is used only in reference to fully
terrestrial turtles or, more narrowly, only those members of Testudinidae, the family
of modern land tortoises. Terrapin may refer to small semi-aquatic turtles
that live in fresh and brackish water, in particular the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys
terrapin). Although the members of the genus Terrapene
dwell mostly on land, they are referred to as box turtles rather than tortoises. The American Society of Ichthyologists and
Herpetologists uses “turtle” to describe all species of the order Testudines, regardless
of whether they are land-dwelling or sea-dwelling, and uses “tortoise” as a more specific term
for slow-moving terrestrial species.In the United Kingdom, the word turtle is used for
water-dwelling species, including ones known in the US as terrapins, but not for terrestrial
species, which are known only as tortoises. The word chelonian is popular among veterinarians,
scientists, and conservationists working with these animals as a catch-all name for any
member of the superorder Chelonia, which includes all turtles living and extinct, as well as
their immediate ancestors. Chelonia is based on the Greek word for turtles,
χελώνη chelone; Greek χέλυς chelys “tortoise” is also used in the formation of
scientific names of chelonians. Testudines, on the other hand, is based on
the Latin word for tortoise, testudo. Terrapin comes from an Algonquian word for
turtle.Some languages do not have this distinction, as all of these are referred to by the same
name. For example, in Spanish, the word tortuga
is used for turtles, tortoises, and terrapins. A sea-dwelling turtle is tortuga marina, a
freshwater species tortuga de río, and a tortoise tortuga terrestre.==Anatomy and morphology==
The largest living chelonian is the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), which reaches
a shell length of 200 cm (6.6 ft) and can reach a weight of over 900 kg (2,000 lb). Freshwater turtles are generally smaller,
but with the largest species, the Asian softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii, a few individuals
have been reported up to 200 cm (6.6 ft). This dwarfs even the better-known alligator
snapping turtle, the largest chelonian in North America, which attains a shell length
of up to 80 cm (2.6 ft) and weighs as much as 113.4 kg (250 lb).Giant tortoises of the
genera Geochelone, Meiolania, and others were relatively widely distributed around the world
into prehistoric times, and are known to have existed in North and South America, Australia,
and Africa. They became extinct at the same time as the
appearance of man, and it is assumed humans hunted them for food. The only surviving giant tortoises are on
the Seychelles and Galápagos Islands and can grow to over 130 cm (51 in) in length,
and weigh about 300 kg (660 lb).The largest ever chelonian was Archelon ischyros, a Late
Cretaceous sea turtle known to have been up to 4.6 m (15 ft) long.The smallest turtle
is the speckled padloper tortoise of South Africa. It measures no more than 8 cm (3.1 in) in
length and weighs about 140 g (4.9 oz). Two other species of small turtles are the
American mud turtles and musk turtles that live in an area that ranges from Canada to
South America. The shell length of many species in this group
is less than 13 cm (5.1 in) in length.===Neck retraction===Turtles are divided into two groups, according
to how they retract their necks into their shells (something the ancestral Proganochelys
could not do). The mechanism of neck retraction differs phylogenetically:
the suborder Pleurodira retracts laterally to the side, anterior to shoulder girdles,
while the suborder Cryptodira retracts straight back, between shoulder girdles. These motions are largely due to the morphology
and arrangement of cervical vertebrae. Of all recent turtles, the cervical column
consists of nine joints and eight vertebrae, which are individually independent. Since these vertebrae are not fused and are
rounded, the neck is more flexible, being able to bend in the backwards and sideways
directions. The primary function and evolutionary implication
of neck retraction is thought to be for feeding rather than protection. Neck retraction and reciprocal extension allows
the turtle to reach out further to capture prey while swimming. Neck expansion creates suction when the head
is thrust forward and the oropharynx is expanded, and this morphology suggests the retraction
function is for feeding purposes as the suction helps catch prey. The protection the shell provides the head
when it is retracted is therefore not the main function of retraction, thus is an exaptation. As for the difference between the two methods
of retraction, both Pleurodirans and Cryptodirans use the quick extension of the neck as a method
of predation, so the difference in retraction mechanism is not due to a difference in ecological
niche.===Head===
Most turtles that spend most of their lives on land have their eyes looking down at objects
in front of them. Some aquatic turtles, such as snapping turtles
and soft-shelled turtles, have eyes closer to the top of the head. These species of turtle can hide from predators
in shallow water, where they lie entirely submerged except for their eyes and nostrils. Near their eyes, sea turtles possess glands
that produce salty tears that rid their body of excess salt taken in from the water they
drink. Turtles have rigid beaks and use their jaws
to cut and chew food. Instead of having teeth, which they appear
to have lost about 150–200 million years ago, the upper and lower jaws of the turtle
are covered by horny ridges. Carnivorous turtles usually have knife-sharp
ridges for slicing through their prey. Herbivorous turtles have serrated-edged ridges
that help them cut through tough plants. They use their tongues to swallow food, but
unlike most reptiles, they cannot stick out their tongues to catch food.===Shell===The upper shell of the turtle is called the
carapace. The lower shell that encases the belly is
called the plastron. The carapace and plastron are joined together
on the turtle’s sides by bony structures called bridges. The inner layer of a turtle’s shell is made
up of about 60 bones that include portions of the backbone and the ribs, meaning the
turtle cannot crawl out of its shell. In most turtles, the outer layer of the shell
is covered by horny scales called scutes that are part of its outer skin, or epidermis. Scutes are made up of the fibrous protein
keratin that also makes up the scales of other reptiles. These scutes overlap the seams between the
shell bones and add strength to the shell. Some turtles do not have horny scutes; for
example, the leatherback sea turtle and the soft-shelled turtles have shells covered with
leathery skin instead. The shape of the shell gives helpful clues
about how a turtle lives. Most tortoises have a large, dome-shaped shell
that makes it difficult for predators to crush the shell between their jaws. One of the few exceptions is the African pancake
tortoise, which has a flat, flexible shell that allows it to hide in rock crevices. Most aquatic turtles have flat, streamlined
shells, which aid in swimming and diving. American snapping turtles and musk turtles
have small, cross-shaped plastrons that give them more efficient leg movement for walking
along the bottom of ponds and streams. Another exception is the Belawan Turtle (Cirebon,
West Java), which has sunken-back soft-shell. The color of a turtle’s shell may vary. Shells are commonly colored brown, black,
or olive green. In some species, shells may have red, orange,
yellow, or grey markings, often spots, lines, or irregular blotches. One of the most colorful turtles is the eastern
painted turtle, which includes a yellow plastron and a black or olive shell with red markings
around the rim. Tortoises, being land-based, have rather heavy
shells. In contrast, aquatic and soft-shelled turtles
have lighter shells that help them avoid sinking in water and swim faster with more agility. These lighter shells have large spaces called
fontanelles between the shell bones. The shells of leatherback sea turtles are
extremely light because they lack scutes and contain many fontanelles. It has been suggested by Jackson (2002) that
the turtle shell can function as pH buffer. To endure through anoxic conditions, such
as winter periods trapped beneath ice or within anoxic mud at the bottom of ponds, turtles
utilize two general physiological mechanisms. In the case of prolonged periods of anoxia,
it has been shown that the turtle shell both releases carbonate buffers and uptakes lactic
acid.====Respiration====
Respiration, for many amniotes, is achieved by the contraction and relaxation of specific
muscle groups (i.e. intercostals, abdominal muscles, and/or a diaphragm) attached to an
internal rib-cage that can expand or contract the body wall thus assisting airflow in and
out of the lungs. The ribs of Chelonians, however, are fused
with their carapace and external to their pelvic and pectoral girdles, a feature unique
among turtles. This rigid shell is not capable of expansion,
and by rendering their rib-cage immobile, Testudines have had to evolve special adaptations
for respiration.Turtle pulmonary ventilation occurs by using specific groups of abdominal
muscles attached to their viscera and shell that pull the lungs ventrally during inspiration,
where air is drawn in via a negative pressure gradient (Boyle’s Law). In expiration, the contraction of the transversus
abdominis is the driving force by propelling the viscera into the lungs and expelling air
under positive pressure. Conversely, the relaxing and flattening of
the oblique abdominis muscle pulls the transversus back down which, once again, draws air back
into the lungs. Important auxiliary muscles used for ventilatory
processes are the pectoralis, which is used in conjunction with the transverse abdominis
during inspiration, and the serratus, which moves with the abdominal oblique accompanying
expiration. The lungs of Testudines are multi-chambered
and attached their entire length down the carapace. The number of chambers can vary between taxa,
though most commonly they have three lateral chambers, three medial chambers, and one terminal
chamber. As previously mentioned, the act of specific
abdominal muscles pulling down the viscera (or pushing back up) is what allows for respiration
in turtles. Specifically, it is the turtles large liver
that pulls or pushes on the lungs. Ventral to the lungs, in the coelomic cavity,
the liver of turtles is attached directly to the right lung, and their stomach is directly
attached to the left lung by the ventral mesopneumonium, which is attached to their liver by the ventral
mesentery. When the liver is pulled down, inspiration
begins. Supporting the lungs is the post-pulmonary
septum, which is found in all Testudines, and is thought to prevent the lungs from collapsing.===Skin and molting===As mentioned above, the outer layer of the
shell is part of the skin; each scute (or plate) on the shell corresponds to a single
modified scale. The remainder of the skin has much smaller
scales, similar to the skin of other reptiles. Turtles do not molt their skins all at once
as snakes do, but continuously in small pieces. When turtles are kept in aquaria, small sheets
of dead skin can be seen in the water (often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic) having
been sloughed off when the animals deliberately rub themselves against a piece of wood or
stone. Tortoises also shed skin, but dead skin is
allowed to accumulate into thick knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of
the body outside the shell. By counting the rings formed by the stack
of smaller, older scutes on top of the larger, newer ones, it is possible to estimate the
age of a turtle, if one knows how many scutes are produced in a year. This method is not very accurate, partly because
growth rate is not constant, but also because some of the scutes eventually fall away from
the shell.===Limbs===
Terrestrial tortoises have short, sturdy feet. Tortoises are famous for moving slowly, in
part because of their heavy, cumbersome shells, which restrict stride length. Amphibious turtles normally have limbs similar
to those of tortoises, except that the feet are webbed and often have long claws. These turtles swim using all four feet in
a way similar to the dog paddle, with the feet on the left and right side of the body
alternately providing thrust. Large turtles tend to swim less than smaller
ones, and the very big species, such as alligator snapping turtles, hardly swim at all, preferring
to walk along the bottom of the river or lake. As well as webbed feet, turtles have very
long claws, used to help them clamber onto riverbanks and floating logs upon which they
bask. Male turtles tend to have particularly long
claws, and these appear to be used to stimulate the female while mating. While most turtles have webbed feet, some,
such as the pig-nosed turtle, have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and
the claws being relatively small. These species swim in the same way as sea
turtles do (see below). Sea turtles are almost entirely aquatic and
have flippers instead of feet. Sea turtles fly through the water, using the
up-and-down motion of the front flippers to generate thrust; the back feet are not used
for propulsion but may be used as rudders for steering. Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles
have very limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest to the sea as
hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea. Females must come back onto land to lay eggs. They move very slowly and laboriously, dragging
themselves forwards with their flippers.==Behavior=====
Senses===Turtles are thought to have exceptional night
vision due to the unusually large number of rod cells in their retinas. Turtles have color vision with a wealth of
cone subtypes with sensitivities ranging from the near ultraviolet (UVA) to red. Some land turtles have very poor pursuit movement
abilities, which are normally found only in predators that hunt quick-moving prey, but
carnivorous turtles are able to move their heads quickly to snap.===Communication===While typically thought of as mute, turtles
make various sounds when communicating. Tortoises may be vocal when courting and mating. Various species of both freshwater and sea
turtles emit numerous types of calls, often short and low frequency, from the time they
are in the egg to when they are adults. These vocalizations may serve to create group
cohesion when migrating.===Intelligence===It has been reported that wood turtles are
better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes. Case studies exist of turtles playing. They do, however, have a very low encephalization
quotient (relative brain to body mass), and their hard shells enable them to live without
fast reflexes or elaborate predator avoidance strategies. In the laboratory, turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni)
can learn novel operant tasks and have demonstrated a long-term memory of at least 7.5 months.==Reproduction==Turtles are known for displaying a wide variety
of mating behaviors, however, they are not known for forming pair-bonds or for being
part of a social group. Once fertilization has occurred and an offspring
has been produced, neither parent will provide care for the offspring once it’s hatched. Females generally outnumber males in various
turtle species (such as Green turtles), and as a result, most males will engage in multiple
copulation with multiple partners throughout their lifespan. However, due to the sexual dimorphism present
in most turtle species, males must develop different courting strategies or use alternate
methods to gain access to a potential mate. Most terrestrial species have males that are
larger than females, and fighting between males often determines a hierarchical order
in which the higher up the order an individual is, the better the chance is of the individual
getting access to a potential mate. For most semi-aquatic species and bottom-walking
aquatic species, combat occurs less often. Males belonging to semi-aquatic and bottom-walking
species instead often use their larger size advantage to forcibly mate with a female. In fully aquatic species, males are often
smaller than females and therefore they cannot use the same strategy as their semi-aquatic
relatives, which relies on overpowering the females with strength. Males in this category resort to using courtship
displays in an attempt to gain mating access to a female.===Male competition===Wood turtles are an example of a terrestrial
species where the males have a hierarchical ranking system based on dominance through
fighting, and it’s shown that the males with the highest rank and thus the most wins in
fights have the most offspring.Galapagos tortoises are another example of a species which has
a hierarchical rank that is determined by dominance displays, and access to food and
mates is regulated by this dominance hierarchy. Two male saddle backs most often compete for
access to cactus trees, which is their source of food. The winner is the individual who stretches
their neck the highest, and that individual gets access to the cactus tree, which can
attract potential mates.===Force mating===The male scorpion mud turtle is an example
of a bottom-walking aquatic species that relies on overpowering females with its larger size
as a mating strategy. The male approaches the female from the rear,
and often resorts to aggressive methods such as biting the female’s tail or hind limbs,
followed by a mounting behavior in which the male clasps the edges of her carapace with
his forelimbs and hind limbs to hold her in position. The male follows this action by laterally
waving his head and sometimes biting the female’s head in an attempt to get her to withdraw
her head into her shell. This exposes her cloaca, and with it exposed,
the male can attempt copulation by trying to insert his grasping tail.Male radiated
tortoises are also known to use the force mating strategy wherein they use surrounding
vegetation to trap or prevent females from escaping, then pin them down for copulation.===Courtship displays===
Red-eared sliders are an example of a fully aquatic species in which the male performs
a courtship behavior. In this case the male extends his forelegs
with the palms facing out and flutters his forelegs in the female’s face. Female choice is important in this method,
and the females of some species, such as green sea turtles, aren’t always receptive. As such, they’ve evolved certain behaviors
to avoid the male’s attempts at copulation, such as swimming away, confronting the male
followed by biting, or a refusal position in which the female assumes a vertical position
with her limbs widely outspread and her plastron facing the male. If the water is too shallow to perform the
refusal position, the females will resort to beaching themselves, which is a proven
deterrent method, as the males will not follow them ashore.==Ecology and life history==Although many turtles spend large amounts
of their lives underwater, all turtles and tortoises breathe air and must surface at
regular intervals to refill their lungs. They can also spend much or all of their lives
on dry land. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater
turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities that
are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called papillae, have a
rich blood supply and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from
the water using these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills to respire.Like
other reptiles, turtles lay eggs that are slightly soft and leathery. The eggs of the largest species are spherical
while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and contains a different
protein from bird eggs, such that it will not coagulate when cooked. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly
of yolk. In some species, temperature determines whether
an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower
temperature causes a male. Large numbers of eggs are deposited in holes
dug into mud or sand. They are then covered and left to incubate
by themselves. Depending on the species, the eggs will typically
take 70–120 days to hatch. When the turtles hatch, they squirm their
way to the surface and head toward the water. There are no known species in which the mother
cares for her young. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry, sandy beaches. Immature sea turtles are not cared for by
the adults. Turtles can take many years to reach breeding
age, and in many cases, breed every few years rather than annually. Researchers have recently discovered a turtle’s
organs do not gradually break down or become less efficient over time, unlike most other
animals. It was found that the liver, lungs, and kidneys
of a centenarian turtle are virtually indistinguishable from those of its immature counterpart. This has inspired genetic researchers to begin
examining the turtle genome for longevity genes.A group of turtles is known as a bale.===Diet===A turtle’s diet varies greatly depending on
the environment in which it lives. Adult turtles typically eat aquatic plants;
invertebrates such as insects, snails, and worms; and have been reported to occasionally
eat dead marine animals. Several small freshwater species are carnivorous,
eating small fish and a wide range of aquatic life. However, protein is essential to turtle growth
and juvenile turtles are purely carnivorous. Sea turtles typically feed on jellyfish, sponges,
and other soft-bodied organisms. Some species with stronger jaws have been
observed to eat shellfish, while others, such as the green sea turtle, do not eat meat at
all and, instead, have a diet largely made up of algae.==Systematics and evolution==Based on body fossils, the first proto-turtles
are believed to have existed in the late Triassic Period of the Mesozoic era, about 220 million
years ago, and their shell, which has remained a remarkably stable body plan, is thought
to have evolved from bony extensions of their backbones and broad ribs that expanded and
grew together to form a complete shell that offered protection at every stage of its evolution,
even when the bony component of the shell was not complete. This is supported by fossils of the freshwater
Odontochelys semitestacea or “half-shelled turtle with teeth”, from the late Triassic,
which have been found near Guangling in southwest China. Odontochelys displays a complete bony plastron
and an incomplete carapace, similar to an early stage of turtle embryonic development. Prior to this discovery, the earliest-known
fossil turtle ancestors, like Proganochelys, were terrestrial and had a complete shell,
offering no clue to the evolution of this remarkable anatomical feature. By the late Jurassic, turtles had radiated
widely, and their fossil history becomes easier to read. Their exact ancestry has been disputed. It was believed they are the only surviving
branch of the ancient evolutionary grade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonids,
millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs. All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening
while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals, the hole has
become the zygomatic arch). The millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs
became extinct in the late Permian period and the procolophonoids during the Triassic.However,
it was later suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to reversion rather
than to anapsid descent. More recent morphological phylogenetic studies
with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than
to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld
the placement of turtles within diapsids; some place turtles within Archosauria, or,
more commonly, as a sister group to extant archosaurs, though an analysis conducted by
Lyson et al. (2012) recovered turtles as the sister group of lepidosaurs instead. Reanalysis of prior phylogenies suggests that
they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of
them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil
and extant taxa broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Testudines were suggested to have diverged
from other diapsids between 200 and 279 million years ago, though the debate is far from settled. Even the traditional placement of turtles
outside Diapsida cannot be ruled out at this point. A combined analysis of morphological and molecular
data conducted by Lee (2001) found turtles to be anapsids (though a relationship with
archosaurs couldn’t be statistically rejected). Similarly, a morphological study conducted
by Lyson et al.. (2010) recovered them as anapsids most closely
related to Eunotosaurus. A molecular analysis of 248 nuclear genes
from 16 vertebrate taxa suggests that turtles are a sister group to birds and crocodiles
(the Archosauria). The date of separation of turtles and birds
and crocodiles was estimated to be 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living
turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, was estimated to
have occurred around 157 million years ago. The oldest definitive crown-group turtle (member
of the modern clade Testudines) is the species Caribemys oxfordiensis from the late Jurassic
period (Oxfordian stage). Through utilizing the first genomic-scale
phylogenetic analysis of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) to investigate the placement of turtles
within reptiles, Crawford et al. (2012) also suggest that turtles are a sister group to
birds and crocodiles (the Archosauria).The first genome-wide phylogenetic analysis was
completed by Wang et al. (2013). Using the draft genomes of Chelonia mydas
and Pelodiscus sinensis, the team used the largest turtle data set to date in their analysis
and concluded that turtles are likely a sister group of crocodilians and birds (Archosauria). This placement within the diapsids suggests
that the turtle lineage lost diapsid skull characteristics as it now possesses an anapsid-like
skull. The earliest known fully shelled member of
the turtle lineage is the late Triassic Proganochelys. This genus already possessed many advanced
turtle traits, and thus probably indicates many millions of years of preceding turtle
evolution; this is further supported by evidence from fossil tracks from the Early Triassic
of the United States (Wyoming and Utah) and from the Middle Triassic of Germany, indicating
that proto-turtles already existed as early as the Early Triassic. Proganochelys lacked the ability to pull its
head into its shell, had a long neck, and had a long, spiked tail ending in a club. While this body form is similar to that of
ankylosaurs, it resulted from convergent evolution. Turtles are divided into two extant suborders:
Cryptodira and Pleurodira. The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups
and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles. The Pleurodira are sometimes known as the
side-necked turtles, a reference to the way they retract their heads into their shells. This smaller group consists primarily of various
freshwater turtles.===Classification of turtles===
Order Testudines Linnaeus, 1758 Suborder Pleurodira Cope, 1864
Family †Apertotemporalidae Kühne, 1937 Family †Platychelyidae Brän, 1965 sensu
Gaffney, Tong & Buffetaut, 2006 Family †Dortokidae Lapparent de Broin & Murelaga,
1996 Family †Notoemyidae Fernandez & Fuente,
1994 Superfamily Cheloides Gray, 1825 sensu Gaffney,
Tong & Buffetaut, 2006 Family Chelidae Gray, 1825
Superfamily Pelomedusoides Cope, 1868 sensu Broin 1988
Family †Araripemydidae Price, 1973 Family Pelomedusidae (African sideneck turtles)
Family †Euraxemydidae Gaffney, Tong & Buffetaut, 2006
Family †Bothremydidae Baur, 1891 Family Podocnemididae Cope, 1868 (Madagascan
big-headed and American sideneck river turtles) Suborder Cryptodira Duméril & Bibron, 1835
Infraorder Paracryptodira Family †Pleurosternidae Cope, 1868
Family †Compsemyidae Family †Baenidae Cope, 1882
Infraorder Eucryptodira Gaffney, 1975a sensu Gaffney, 1984
Family †Macrobaenidae Sukhanov 1964 Family †Eurysternidae Dollo, 1886
Family †Plesiochelyidae Baur, 1888 Family †Xinjiangchelyidae Nesov, 1990
Clade Centrocryptodira Family †Osteopygidae Zangerl, 1953
Family †Sinemydidae Yeh, 1963 Clade Polycryptodira Gaffney, 1988
Clade Pantrionychia Family †Adocidae
Superfamily Trionychoidea Gray, 1870 Family Carettochelyidae Boulenger, 1887 (pignose
turtles) Family Trionychidae Fitzinger, 1826 (softshell
turtles) Superfamily Testudinoidea Baur, 1893
Family †Haichemydidae Sukhanov & Narmandakh, 2006
Family †Lindholmemydidae Chkhikvadze, 1970 Family †Sinochelyidae Chkhikvadze, 1970
Family Emydidae (Rafinesque, 1815) (pond, box, and water turtles)
Family Geoemydidae Theobald, 1868 (Asian river turtles, Asian leaf turtles, Asian box turtles,
and roofed turtles) Family Testudinidae Batsch, 1788 (true tortoises)
Clade Americhelydia Crawford et al., 2014 Family Chelydridae Gray, 1831 (snapping turtles)
Superfamily Kinosternoidea Joyce, Parham, and Gauthier 2004
Family Dermatemydidae Gray, 1870 (river turtles) Family Kinosternidae Agassiz, 1857 (mud turtles)
Superfamily Chelonioidea Bauer, 1893 (sea turtles)
Family †Toxochelyidae Baur, 1895 Family Cheloniidae Oppel, 1811 (green sea
turtles and relatives) Family †Thalassemydidae
Family Dermochelyidae Fitzinger, 1843 (leatherback sea turtles)
Family †Protostegidae Cope, 1872==Fossil record==
Turtle fossils of hatchling and nestling size have been documented in the scientific literature. Paleontologists from North Carolina State
University have found the fossilized remains of the world’s largest turtle in a coal mine
in Colombia. The specimen named as Carbonemys cofrinii
is around 60 million years old and nearly 2.4 m (8 ft) long.On a few rare occasions,
paleontologists have succeeded in unearthing large numbers of Jurassic or Cretaceous turtle
skeletons accumulated in a single area (the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia, the Turtle Graveyard
in North Dakota, or the Black Mountain Turtle Layer in Wyoming). The most spectacular find of this kind to
date occurred in 2009 in Shanshan County in Xinjiang, where over a thousand ancient freshwater
turtles apparently died after the last water hole in an area dried out during a major drought.Though
absent from New Zealand in recent times, turtle fossils are known from the Miocene Saint Bathans
Fauna, represented by a meiolaniid and pleurodires.===Genomics===
Turtles possess diverse chromosome numbers (2n=28–66) and a myriad of chromosomal
rearrangements have occurred during evolution.==In human culture=====
As pets===Some turtles, particularly small terrestrial
and freshwater turtles, are kept as pets. Among the most popular are Russian tortoises,
spur-thighed tortoises, and red-eared sliders.In the United States, due to the ease of contracting
salmonellosis through casual contact with turtles, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) established a regulation in 1975 to discontinue the sale of turtles under 4 in
(100 mm). It is supposed to be illegal in every US state
for anyone to sell any turtles under 4 inches (10 cm) long, but many stores and flea markets
still sell small turtles due to a loophole in the FDA regulation which allows turtles
under 4 in (100 mm) to be sold for educational purposes.Some states have other laws and regulations
regarding possession of red-eared sliders as pets because they are looked upon as invasive
species or pests where they are not native, but have been introduced through the pet trade. As of July 1, 2007, it is illegal in Florida
to sell any wild type red-eared slider. Unusual color varieties such as albino and
pastel red-eared sliders, which are derived from captive breeding, are still allowed for
sale in that state. In Europe, turtle and tortoise keeping became
popular in the 1960s and 1970s, when large numbers of wild-caught turtles and tortoises
were imported. This was especially devastating to the Mediterranean
tortoise population. In the 1980s the import of wild-caught tortoises
started to be banned in various countries. Most turtles and tortoises for sale in Europe
today are captive-bred. Turtles and tortoises are seen by some people
as cheap pets that need little care. The complexity and expense of proper turtle
and tortoise husbandry is often underestimated. Most species of tortoise need a spacious outdoor
enclosure with areas at different temperatures so they can thermoregulate. They also need opportunities to climb, dig
and forage. Most species of tortoise should be fed dark,
leafy greens with calcium and vitamin supplements. Turtles require a large tub or aquarium with
land areas where they can dry off completely and other areas where they can rest near the
water’s surface, on a piece of submerged driftwood for example. Like tortoises, turtles need access to UVB
lighting and a varied diet rich in calcium.===As food, traditional medicine, and cosmetics
===The flesh of turtles, calipash or calipee,
was and still is considered a delicacy in a number of cultures. Turtle soup has been a prized dish in Anglo-American
cuisine, and still remains so in some parts of Asia. Gopher tortoise stew was popular with some
groups in Florida.Turtles remain a part of the traditional diet on the island of Grand
Cayman, so much so that when wild stocks became depleted, a turtle farm was established specifically
to raise sea turtles for their meat. The farm also releases specimens to the wild
as part of an effort to repopulate the Caribbean Sea.Fat from turtles is also used in the Caribbean
and in Mexico as a main ingredient in cosmetics, marketed under its Spanish name crema de tortuga.Turtle
plastrons (the part of the shell that covers a tortoise from the bottom) are widely used
in traditional Chinese medicine; according to statistics, Taiwan imports hundreds of
tons of plastrons every year. A popular medicinal preparation based on powdered
turtle plastron (and a variety of herbs) is the guilinggao jelly; these days, though,
it is typically made with only herbal ingredients.==Conservation status==
In February 2011, the Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group published a report
about the top 25 species of turtles most likely to become extinct, with a further 40 species
at very high risk of becoming extinct. This list excludes sea turtles, however, both
the leatherback and the Kemp’s ridley would make the top 25 list. The report is due to be updated in four years
time allowing to follow the evolution of the list. Between 48 and 54% of all 328 of their species
considered threatened, turtles and tortoises are at a much higher risk of extinction than
many other vertebrates. Of the 263 species of freshwater and terrestrial
turtles, 117 species are considered Threatened, 73 are either Endangered or Critically Endangered
and 1 is Extinct. Of the 58 species belonging to the family
Testudinidae, 33 species are Threatened, 18 are either Endangered or Critically Endangered,
1 is Extinct in the wild and 7 species are Extinct. 71% of all tortoise species are either gone
or almost gone. Asian species are the most endangered, closely
followed by the five endemic species from Madagascar. Turtles face many threats, including habitat
destruction, harvesting for consumption, and the pet trade. The high extinction risk for Asian species
is primarily due to the long-term unsustainable exploitation of turtles and tortoises for
consumption and traditional Chinese medicine, and to a lesser extent for the international
pet trade.Efforts have been made by Chinese entrepreneurs to satisfy increasing demand
for turtle meat as gourmet food and traditional medicine with farmed turtles, instead of wild-caught
ones; according to a study published in 2007, over a thousand turtle farms operated in China. Turtle farms in Oklahoma and Louisiana raise
turtles for export to China. Nonetheless, wild turtles continue to be caught
and sent to market in large number (as well as to turtle farms, to be used as breeding
stock), resulting in a situation described by conservationists as “the Asian turtle crisis”. In the words of the biologist George Amato,
“the amount and the volume of captured turtles … vacuumed up entire species from areas
in Southeast Asia”, even as biologists still did not know how many distinct turtle species
live in the region. About 75% of Asia’s 90 tortoise and freshwater
turtle species are estimated to have become threatened.Harvesting wild turtles is legal
in a number of states in the USA. In one of these states, Florida, just a single
seafood company in Fort Lauderdale was reported in 2008 as buying about 5,000 pounds of softshell
turtles a week. The harvesters (hunters) are paid about $2
a pound; some manage to catch as many as 30–40 turtles (500 pounds) on a good day. Some of the catch gets to the local restaurants,
while most of it is exported to Asia. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission estimated in 2008 that around 3,000 pounds of softshell turtles were exported
each week via Tampa International Airport.Nonetheless, the great majority of turtles exported from
the USA are farm raised. According to one estimate by the World Chelonian
Trust, about 97% of 31.8 million animals harvested in the U.S. over a three-year period (November
4, 2002 – November 26, 2005) were exported. It has been estimated (presumably, over the
same 2002–2005 period) that about 47% of the US turtle exports go to People’s Republic
of China (predominantly to Hong Kong), another 20% to Taiwan, and 11% to Mexico.TurtleSAt
is a smartphone app that has been developed in Australia in honor of World Turtle Day
to help in the conservation of fresh water turtles in Australia. The app will allow the user to identify turtles
with a picture guide and the location of turtles using the phones GPS to record sightings and
help find hidden turtle nesting grounds. The app has been developed because there has
been a high per cent of decline of fresh water turtles in Australia due to foxes, droughts,
and urban development. The aim of the app is to reduce the number
of foxes and help with targeting feral animal control.Queensland’s shark culling program,
which has killed roughly 50,000 sharks since 1962, has also killed thousands of turtles
as bycatch. Over 5,000 marine turtles have been killed
in Queensland’s “shark control” program (which uses shark nets and drum lines). The program has also killed 719 loggerhead
turtles and 33 hawksbill turtles (hawksbill turtles are critically endangered). New South Wales has a “shark control” program
which has killed many turtles: its program uses shark nets, in which more than 5,000
marine turtles have been caught.==See also==
Animal track Cheloniology
Cultural depictions of turtles Symposium on Turtle Evolution==Notes

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