Thorium can give humanity clean, pollution free energy | Kirk Sorensen | TEDxColoradoSprings


Translator: Amanda Chu
Reviewer: Peter van de Ven It starts all the way back
at the beginning of the universe 14 billion years ago, with the Big Bang
and formation of everything when everything was just
hydrogen and helium and a little some other stuff. But stars and galaxies began to form, and they were like factories
for creating new elements. Really big stars formed
and they exploded as supernovae, and this seeded the universe
with everything heavier than iron that was born in these final moments
of a supernova explosion. Now two of the things
that were created in the supernova are what I want to talk about today:
thorium and uranium. These were different
because they were radioactive and they kept some of that energy
from the supernova explosion stored in their very nuclear structure. And these materials
along with all the others came together to form our solar system
and our planet billions of years ago, and some of this thorium
and uranium, then, was incorporated into our planet, sinking to the center of the world
and heating our planet, generating this energy
that generates the Earth’s magnetic field. And it drives plate tectonics, and it has spread apart oceans
and pushed up mountains. And these thorium and uranium are now incorporated into minerals
all over the world, but because thorium
has a longer half-life, it’s about three times
more common than uranium. This is the most rich deposit
of thorium in North America; it’s found in Idaho. Now as life filled the world
protected by the magnetic field, they didn’t know any more
about the importance of these minerals, and certainly we didn’t
as we entered the scene. We made our future
out of stones and simple tools because they were resistant to fire
and they were rugged. When we were able
to find metals, like gold, we practically worshiped them because they were so marvelous and shiny, but gold was far too rare
to build an industrial civilization – you know, we couldn’t build a plow
out of gold, or armor or spears. Bronze was the material we wanted to use
because it was much more common. And the technologies
that allowed us to first smelt iron work were really what led to many
modern innovations we have today; iron is still the most commonly used
of all the metals. In thousands of years of human history,
only seven metals were known. Chemistry and technology
really began in the 1700s and was centered in this place,
the Royal Institution in London; this was a golden age of science. In the basement of the Royal Institution,
10 elements were discovered – for instance, common table salt is composed
of sodium metal and chlorine gas. In 1829, a Swedish scientist named
Jöns Jacob Berzeliu isolated thorium, and he gave it this awesome name
named after the Norse god of thunder. He had absolutely no idea
how well he had named this element; in fact, it’s probably the best named
element in the history of elements. He didn’t understand any of that though. In 1841, uranium was also discovered
using the same potassium that had been discovered
in the Royal Institution. And this fellow
also deserves special mention: His name is Henri Moissan, and he was the French scientist
who first synthesized fluorine. What’s special about fluorine? It’s the most reactive
of all the elements that we know of; it’s so reactive, in fact,
we never find it in nature by itself, we always find it combined
with other things, like calcium or sodium or so forth. But the important thing
to understand about fluorine is when it combines with a metal, it forms
very, very, very stable compounds. This example is lithium fluoride –
that may sound strange, but I’ll bet a number of you
brushed your teeth this morning with a fluoride salt
called sodium fluoride. So if this looks familiar to you, you’re already well acquainted
with this technology. But one of the most important things
that happened with fluorine was this gave us the ability, finally,
to synthesize aluminum, and aluminum became
an incredibly important metal to our modern world: We would not have airplanes
and we would not have rockets if we had not been able
to develop aluminum, and fluorine was actually the key
to the development of aluminum. Now in the late 1800s, this lady, Marie Curie,
was trying to understand what made thorium and uranium
different than the other elements – why were they radioactive? – and she devoted her life
to try to understand this mystery. Thanks to her work and others’,
an understanding of the atom developed, and it was found to be
kind of like a little solar system – now physicists might cringe
because it’s not exactly right, but it’s mostly right – that there’s a proton and there’s a neutron
and these particles at the nucleus, and then there’s these little
tiny electrons spinning around this. And this was very important because this finally helped them crack the mystery of
“what the heck was radioactivity?” Radioactivity was a war
going on inside the atom between the positively charged protons, that were trying to pull away
from one another, and the neutrons and protons, which both exerted a force
called the nuclear force that helped glue them together. Radioactivity happened when there were
too many or too few neutrons for how many protons you had, and also it explained
why certain elements, when they got too heavy, were always radioactive. This explained thorium and uranium and, indirectly, why we have energy
from inside the earth, geothermal energy – all of these things. It explained why we have the forms
of uranium and thorium we have today. There’s only three natural forms
of radioactive material. One of them is found in thorium –
it’s 14 billion years old – and then two more are found in uranium. Now, the part of uranium
that we use for nuclear energy now is just a tiny, tiny amount; it’s only seven parts in 1000
of the natural uranium is used for energy. And in 1938, two scientists,
Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner in Germany discovered that that small amount
of uranium could be fissioned – it could be split apart and that released neutrons
and much, much, much more energy. And this was a great discovery
that thrilled scientists around the world, but the leadership in Germany
kind of looked at the whole thing as scams because Meitner was Jewish and she had fled Germany to Sweden
to escape the Nazis. But scientists in the United States, particularly Jewish scientists
that had fled Europe, were paying very
close attention to this work and trying to alert the government the research will probably be going on
in using uranium as an explosive. So, they knew that they would need to go
and change the amount of uranium that was this very rare stuff, and here fluorine
came to the rescue again; by combining fluorine with uranium –
six fluorine atoms for each uranium atom – they were able to make uranium into a gas that was suitable for increasing or enriching
the concentration of uranium-235. This whole technology wouldn’t have worked
if fluorine had different properties, but fortunately, fluorine
only has one kind of structure: nine protons, ten neutrons –
no other kind – and that’s what allows it, in this form, to preserve that very,
very delicate balance between the heavier form of uranium
and the lighter form of uranium. The story for thorium ironically, though,
begins with this fellow: his name was Glenn Seaborg,
and he was a chemist at the University of California
in Berkeley in 1939. He was following the work in Germany
very, very closely, and he wanted to know if other elements
could be used for nuclear energy. He had access to the most powerful
nuclear physics machine in the world; it was called the cyclotron. And with this machine, he was able to bombard
uranium and thorium with neutrons, and he discovered new elements,
neptunium and plutonium, and he also discovered
a new form of uranium called uranium-233. With more work on the cyclotron, he discovered that both plutonium and uranium-233
could also be turned into nuclear fuels. And so in a very short period of time, Seaborg had discovered a way to turn all of these nuclear fuels
into potential energy sources, and this was a discovery that had
profound implications for the world. Unfortunately, it was discovered
at exactly the wrong time because this was
the middle of World War II and everything was being devoted
into a wartime effort. Before long, Seaborg was read into a secret program
called the Manhattan Project and he was instructed to go and use
his discovery of plutonium to prepare materials for a nuclear weapon. Not long thereafter,
the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and the United States
was launched into World War II. Seaborg was also still
very curious about thorium, so he made sure
one of the first reactors built was loaded with some thorium so
he could learn more about its properties. Unfortunately, he wanted to find out if
he could use thorium as a nuclear weapon – it was wartime. When the results came back,
he was very surprised; he found out that fluorine
was really going to be totally lousy for a nuclear weapon because the uranium-233
that would be formed would always be contaminated
with other things that were going to emit
large amounts of radiation. But he discovered something that’s still very important
for us to know about today, which is that uranium-233 had a property where it could continue
to make enough neutrons in its fission to create new uranium-233 at an equal
or greater rate than it was consumed. And this meant that thorium
could be used as a nuclear fuel that would last essentially
as long as the thorium lasted, and because thorium was so common, this meant that we would have
an energy source that would essentially never run out. But again, all of these realizations were swept away by the wartime need
for a nuclear explosion, and the United States was the only country that had the technology
for nuclear explosions, and they had a big secret, which was that they were out of bombs
after World War II, and so all of their effort
went into making more nuclear weapons, they did not put effort into “how can we
go and make nuclear energy?” There was great controversy
over who should be in charge. Ultimately, they decided
to create a civilian agency, but they gave it a military mission. I say all these things with great regret because I’m convinced that had nuclear fission been discovered
at some other time in human history, we would have had
a very, very different story. If your introduction
to something is very negative, you tend to think about it
negatively from then on. People were not thinking about how to use
nuclear energy for positive purposes because of the wartime effort, and so it’s one of these great tragedies
of how our history evolved that nuclear attains
such a negative impression in people’s minds from the outset. After the war, there was a tiny focus
on making some nuclear energy using a sodium reactor, and this was because it had the ability to make more plutonium
and better plutonium than it consumed. But this fellow, Alvin Weinberg,
he also was somebody who chose to start. He chose to start looking at thorium
at the Oak Ridge National Labs after the war, and his efforts in thorium were spurred because he had gotten a contract
from the Air Force to look at a power source for a bomber – he wasn’t particularly interested
in nuclear bombers, but he knew it would be a way
to develop a new and advanced reactor. This was the reactor they came up with
in the Aircraft Reactor Experiment, and it was the first reactor
to use these fluoride salts successfully. The reactor program was cancelled, but at the same time,
another group of industrialists was looking at using the sodium reactor
and advancing that technology; they wanted to build a sodium reactor
that would make lots of plutonium, and they put a lot of money and effort
into building this consortium of utilities and began building this reactor. It was completed in 1963 and not long thereafter,
unfortunately, suffered a meltdown and was very concerning to a lot of people
who were living in Michigan at the time. At the same time,
Weinberg was designing a reactor that was completely immune to the idea
of nuclear meltdowns or nuclear accidents. By using this fluoride salt and its stability that it had
because of its chemical properties, they could design a reactor
that wouldn’t meltdown or have any of these problems; it would operate at low pressures
but yet high temperatures and have safety features that were really far in advance
even of anything we have today. They successfully built
and operated this reactor – in fact, Glenn Seaborg here
was at the controls of the reactor when it used uranium-233
as its first fuel load. They were very pleased
with the success of this reactor in 1969, but unfortunately, budget cuts
which had been instituted by Richard Nixon meant that the Atomic Energy Commission could only go forward
with one kind of reactor. They didn’t choose the thorium reactor
but the plutonium fast breeder reactor. They wanted to build
another one in the 1970s, and this program ultimately
went on to be cancelled. But even after it was cancelled, they didn’t go back and say,
“What about thorium? Was that a good idea? Was that perhaps a better choice
that we should have taken?” To me, this is one
of the great regrets again that this technology path
was not chosen. The United States went on to complete
almost 100 nuclear reactors in the 1980s and the 1990s, but really, things started to bottom out
in the ’90s in the nuclear field – there weren’t new reactors being built; there wasn’t new technology
being developed. Now we do have two new nuclear reactors
under construction in Georgia, but we’re closing down nuclear reactors
faster than we’re opening them. And we still have an issue: What will we do
about long-term nuclear waste? It’s an unsolved issue,
and it concerns a lot of people. One of the great advantages
of the thorium approach is that thorium does not produce
the long-lived nuclear waste that the uranium fuel cycle does, and this is because it starts
from a different position on the periodic table and is able to have more opportunities
to consume all of its nuclear fuel rather than to produce
long-lived nuclear waste. These fluoride salts that I’ve mentioned are an ideal fuel for creating safe,
easily operable reactors that can use thorium efficiently, and they can also burn up the kinds
of nuclear waste we’ve already produced – they would be very,
very good at this task. Because they operate at low pressures, they don’t need big containment structures
like existing reactors do, and this allows them to be built
in factories for a lot less money. Because we know that we’re going
to need to go forward with producing more energy at lower cost and creating less pollution and less
and less challenge to our environment. So I have been working on a design for a modular nuclear reactor
based on thorium and these fluoride salts that has got me very excited because not only will it
produce electricity, but it will also produce
desalinated water, and it will also produce
a particular nuclear medicines that are in great demand. [Nuclear energy. The dream that failed]
Things like this aren’t helpful. I really think this is totally wrong. I don’t think nuclear
is the dream that failed. I think what happened was the way we went in nuclear
was shaped by the wrong influences – we were shaped by a desire
for things related to war rather than things related
to energy and electricity and things that help people. So, several years ago, as I was pondering whether or not I should make this leap
into starting a new company, I had to really think hard
because I was in a great job – I loved it – I had a new baby; it just really didn’t seem
like the right time. But I found out that other countries were going forward
with new nuclear reactor technology using thorium and fluoride salts, and I really felt like, unless I made the decision
to start working on this, it wasn’t going to happen – I’ve been doing
tech development long enough to know these things
don’t happen on their own, they happen because
somebody decides to do them. And so, just a few months
before I got started, the Fukushima accident happened in Japan, and I really, again, had to wonder,
Is this the right move to make? But then, when I considered
the fundamentals that people would not stop wanting energy,
they would not stop wanting reliability, and they would definitely keep wanting
to have as clean energy as was possible, I knew there was no other choice;
I had to go forward. And it’s been tough;
I’ve learned a lot of things since then. I’ve learned that when you’re, you know,
36 years old and you got a wife and kids, you’re not exactly the kind of investment your typical venture capitalist
is looking for. I might have done better if I wore
a hoodie and ate some more pizza. (Laughter) I also realized that nuclear reactors
are not iPhone apps or anything like that. This isn’t the kind
of in-and-out type investment that most investors are looking for. So, it’s been an eye-opening experience, but I’ve met some really great people, and I’ve been really grateful
for letters of support that I’ve gotten from all over the world – people who say, “Keep at it.
Keep up the good work. This will make a difference in our future,
and we will turn out better for it.” And really, if I could just
leave you with my belief that, you know, each of us
has to make a choice of what can we do
to make the world the best place. The best thing I can do for the world
is to be a great dad for my family, and the next best thing I can do is to try to use my talents
to bring about an energy source that can benefit all of us. And I just want to leave you with the idea that please use your talents and abilities and choose to start to make
the best kind of future you can. Thank you very much. (Cheers) (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Thorium can give humanity clean, pollution free energy | Kirk Sorensen | TEDxColoradoSprings

  1. Shame most of the comments on here turn political almost instantly in the replies. I just want some science discussion, man, not how y'all think trump is a corporate shill and Bill Gates is a faker

  2. It probably should be noted that the scientists working on the atomic bomb were shown graphic images of the Navy sailors and Marines that were maimed, scorched, and burned alive at Pearl Harbor. They were also shown smuggled photos of the Bataan death march. The Japanese were inhumane on a scale unknown at the time. My uncle was among the mathematicians, and he said that they were aflame with hatred after seeing the Bataan photos. He said that it was the way the Japanese treated our POWs that made them want pay back, more than anything else. They were shown a film of three Japanese soldiers tearing the skin off the back of an American pilot. He was beheaded with a sword right afterward, and you could hear the leader yelling, "I am tired of his cries."

  3. I've watched a few of his talks/presentations, he seems to be knowledgeable and sincere. He seems to be a good man. In the old fashioned sense. Not seen so much these days. I hope he gets his funding and succeeds.

  4. A very interesting point of view, but I would like to point out that an element such as Fluorine or Aluminium cannot be "synthesised" from its compounds. Isolated or extracted would be a more appropriate chemical term.

  5. @9:25 I completely disagree with this guy, nuclear fission was discovered at the right time, it made possible for scientists to get the funds from a government spurred by a race to solve the problem as quickly as possible and before the enemy did! Does this guy has any idea of the cost of a gas diffusion plant to enrich Uranium? Only in times of war will scientists get the ridiculous amounts of money needed for the research into feasible fission and thermonuclear fussion.

  6. Fear alone should be an adequate impediment to the adoption of nuke power! Thorium fuel does nothing to mitigate the dangers and fears of nuclear power. After living through the Fukushima disaster, where they had explosions in four reactors at a plant with only 3 reactors running, it is so true that fear of nuclear power is affecting it's adoption. After years of vigilant research to determine which supermarkets sold produce from OUTSIDE the contaminated disaster region, it is finally getting easier to trust that we are able to source safe food for our family. If the wind would have been blowing in the opposite direction during the 3 meltdowns and fuel fire, the country would have been cut in two and there would be a huge contaminated no-go zone. As it is, only a few hundred thousand people who lost their homes. I was a true believer in nuclear power until Fukushima revealed the fear and lies that result from the use of nuclear power. You've yet to have your Fukushima or Chernobyl in the US, but that day is coming.

  7. Our gred for more money gonna destroy us….! Go back to school and learn about Tesla work and stop laying about energy… Energy is everywhere around as and it's free AND CLEAN we only need Tesla coils to use it but then who gonna feed all those gigantic oppressors that are stealing from us >>AC / DC<<

  8. Hey brother not to intervene but thorium is present in this plan not just in Iowa. Where the ocean floor produced San silica for many years is where I would start looking

  9. Excuse me but the origin of the universe didn't just form from hydrogen and helium and " other stuff'. You lost me at hello.

  10. Believe that and I have a bridge for sale… my father was a nuclear physicist… he built the weapons "tested" in New Mexico in the early 50s .. I was born on Sandia base.. the big name guys were in Los Alamos, the weapons were assembled in Sandia with lots of army personnel guarding the plutonium and uranium and the design specifications… when he retired from the army he went on to get a second master's degree in reactor theory which he taught at Catholic University in Washington DC… I spent my 13th summer at Oak Ridge where he was at National Laboratory and breeder reactor doing research… I know a little bit about nuclear physics, my education is in physical chemistry… radioactive isotopes, and, in fact, all heavy metals are toxic at any level… there are no caveats necessary

  11. They had a choice of Thorium reactors for energy or Uranium the governments decided for Uranium because of by-products Nuclear weapons-grade Plutonium. Thorium would be a good idea.

  12. 13:10 he says "pollution" not CO2 because he knows that CO2 did not cause global warming. Unfortunately if you commit climate blasphemy you get thrown out of the university.

  13. 4:30 "it's not exactly right, but it's Mostly right". 🤨 Right is right, wrong is wrong.

    It's like this quote "We believe in facts, not truth" -Joe Biden

  14. DAHHHHHHHHHWHAT HAPPENED TO TESLA'S THEORY OF FREE ENERGY ; I.E. THE ELECTRIC UNIVERSE??????NO MONEY IT THAT, NO POLLUTION EITHER.

  15. May you make your first $1 trillion by the time you are 50 years old by delivering commercially viable thorium reactors.

  16. let's be honest nuclear reactor is still a explosion technology just like the internal combustion engine just like the gun just like a bomb what is it with making dangerous explosion technology just like the spark gap DC motors we need to get away from explosion technology not enhance the ability to explode are world

  17. Just like nuclear fusion. But until then we can't use it and have to change to solar, wind and hydro. Here in the Netherlands we have politicians saying solar is too expensive but thorium is cool. I mean, hello? Thorium isn't there yet.

  18. Nuclear power has been the most damaging power source to our environment. Just look at Fukashima having irradiated much of the Pacific Ocean and wrecking the ecology and it has the potential to destroy all life on earth if a major global disaster were to happen. If we can replace it with something that can end the threat of global extinction I'd say it is necessary. Oh but you don't hear the Democrats calling for stuff like this. They just want to tax us to death and give nothing in return.

  19. Everything heard about thorium nuclear power has been BS so far. This doesn't look like the exception. Cool story but not much quantification presented.

  20. Why aren't these reactors being built? I live in Claiborne Parish Louisiana and at one time they wanted to store depleted uranium here and it was voted out.

  21. Instead of blowing millions of dollars on a personal vendetta against Trump, Tom Steyer should be investing in this and lobbying congress to open their minds to this technology.

  22. I'll answer most people's comments. Thorium byproduct is uranium 233. We would expose ourselves to radiation and the argument of containment is of no use.

  23. He skated around actually stating it but the reason we went with the form of nuclear reactors we have now is that they can be used to produce weapons grade materials.

  24. how many hanfords and rocky flats would have to be created to harness this resource. thorium, a formerly incidental waste product of uranium/plutonium enrichment, is the modern version of gasoline. burned by the millions of gallons as a needless waste product of kerosene/diesel production at one time. over a million metric tons of thorium phosphate or sulfate, are buried in a shallow grave in colorado, following the war effort. dumped by the railroad car by our defense department while trying to defeat the japanese empire. look how beneficial radioactive isotopes are proving to be to the island of honshu once more. april 2011 has us ALL on the run now. anyone open a can of albacore tuna recently? ..good luck with that. wouldn't wanna feed that to a house cat. westinghouse has designs for portable thorium salts reactors that can be installed underneath large buildings. brookfield ltd now owns the rights to the technology and wants to get in into australia. energy independence for down under. all the electricity to convert all that bauxite into soda cans for the entire planet, the place will glow in the dark like the pacific ocean does now. google: "mutated pineapple."

  25. Minning thorium will continue ti destroy eco systens and geology nightmares. it causes green house gases from start to finsh and tgen through transport.
    so ots no such thing as clean anything.

  26. for the last 20 years have heard this except all cleanup and construction cost is all socialized for a central power source you have to pay to use and get taxed on. Prefer Clean sustainable Solar I can produce and use on-site without any bills. Mine paid for itself in 4 years and the gird connection for emergency needs is only $18.00 per month. We power an EV car and no longer have a $200 electric bill or $300 Gas to purchase for a Car. How would a gamble like Thorium help me? our solar is paid for, pit the same amount of money into Solar, wind and pumped storage hydro and the US needs zero Thorium, Oil, Coal or Natural Gas. Plenty of roofs for residential power and larger Pumped storage stores the energy of peak times for any industry that is not yet a NZE industry.

  27. It doesn't matter whose out there discovering WHAT…..Any work, or patents get bought up and shoved into some obscure back drawer, by big oil, transportation, communications, and energy…and if you push back?
    You End up mysteriously dead…
    Sorry just stating the truth,… Else we'd be way beyond just listening to this on youtube

  28. It is all about property bite discussion Science The Universe and the things about Discovery and the improvement of the human mind to understand the world he lives in

  29. Americans:
    Uranium, Thorium, Plutonium, Magnesium, Lithium, ALUMINUM!!!
    Don't know if this is a myth, but I heard that the reason yanks mispronounce aluminium is because of a spelling mistake on a stencil. Crates containing aluminium were imported into the US and had the spelling mistake printed on them.

  30. Sorry but if liberal lefties hear the word nuclear or radioactive they will fight and democrats won't allow it. Climate religion is real and it has to do with control of everything even down to what you eat and wear.

  31. The global elite‘s will never allow this! They derive all their power by controlling everyone else’s access to power! I only hope that Mr. Sorensen doesn’t fall victim to an untimely accident or is suicided like so many others that threaten the power of the global elite‘s!

  32. A great talk. The endeavour for easy, clean energy is indeed arduous. And this guy summarised nicely how human kind has gone through a great deal of trial and error in the field of nuclear energy. Our journey continues. Such guys make the journey easier….. Kudos..

  33. Just for fun I googled "Draw Backs of Molten Thorium Reactors," 1) no current infrastructure to support 2) political blocks on research 3) thorium reactors are more expensive to build 3) not ALL thorium reactors as self sustaining 4) it would take a long time to get up and running and would cost money….

    Me: …. thats IT….????? WTF IS TAKING SO LONG. SIGH. Thanks big oil and (former) Dept. of Energy

  34. Fascinating talk. Such a concise summary and so compelling. I thought it was new while I was watching it but it's already 41/2 years old. I don't know if this technology is going forward and I don't know if that's a good idea. But I don't think it's necessary. I think there are better alternatives. But people will keep experimenting and advancing. I just hope we can finally start advancing in peace and leave war behind. Energy autonomy is a hugely important aspect when it comes to war or peace. Maybe thorium, since he mentions desalination, will play a role there. I imagine energy becoming decentralized and readily available for everyone, but maybe I'm a dreamer. Imagine, no need for thirst or hunger, no need to pay exorbitant fees to an industry that pollutes and burns the Earth, no need to overthrow and colonize countries to control the flow of oil.

  35. Fascinating talk. Such a concise summary and so compelling. I thought it was new while I was watching it but it's already 41/2 years old. I don't know if this technology is going forward and I don't know if that's a good idea. But I don't think it's necessary. I think there are better alternatives. But people will keep experimenting and advancing. I just hope we can finally start advancing in peace and leave war behind. Energy autonomy is a hugely important aspect when it comes to war or peace. Maybe thorium, since he mentions desalination, will play a role there. I imagine energy becoming decentralized and readily available for everyone, but maybe I'm a dreamer. Imagine, no need for thirst or hunger, no need to pay exorbitant fees to an industry that pollutes and burns the Earth, no need to overthrow and colonize countries to control the flow of oil.

  36. I can listen to Kirk Sorenson all day when he talks about the history of Thorium. He is an excellent speaker and I encourage watching all his videos on Youtube!

  37. Anybody notice the audio changes. Goes from sounding like a live recording to a dubbed over recording. Am I crazy? Around the 2 – 3 minute mark.

  38. Solar panels use minerals to let the sun knock of particles and we collect it.
    An enclosure gathers the particles that are knocked off minerals when bombarded with whatever you want to…my point is it's the same process. Sure throw thorium in; throw whatever you want to using this process in your home and I'm sure every water heater sized apurature and I'm sure you'd be pleased with the outcome.
    Make sure you have a pressure regulator, fo sho

    We don't build solar panels out of thorium.

    And why would we make magnetic motors out of anything non neodymium

    It'd be like making a motor not counterbalanced

    Can't we make anything oppose magnetism at this point…
    Is there not the ability to levitate, and oppose gravity through rotational spin at this point. If you oppose Earth's gravity, what does that do to time. If you oppose our star's, solar system's ect. What does that do..?

  39. As an M.Eng Environmental Engineer, i totally agree with what he says. From what i've learned , Th is indeed the future and nuclear power is the greenest form of energy we can hope for.

  40. any good energy technology can be built in your back yard. nuclear makes waste.. so it must be considered in the equation. more important is keeping population stable.
    2 child per family "incentives" are a must and this will happen by force soon.. the planet has limits.. better to recognize them than to wreck completly.

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