The role of the teacher as an intercultural mediator in the multicultural class.


I’m looking out the window because the MNCG Commander may show up to attend this presentation. So, no pressure for Professor Esposito. However, if the Commander steps in once the lecture has started, we keep going. So, no changes that’s the purpose people continue to
present the context I think that Professor has an either really the
introduction is part of the course you know that he works since 1997 for the
young putting on any language school in the future and he’s a teacher of English
also exam yes he has a quiet very long experience between the language school
he gradually 19 had before in modern languages the European University you
can specialize in teaching methodologies at the Technical University is no sort
of several stage such a linguistic but more importantly is also part of the
Italian Army Reserve and he was took part in some success recently in the
support of the security force assistance center of excellence which is based in
Rome okay so as you can see here the subject
of my presentation Rosa in that comes from radiation in unintelligible of
teaching and learning apartment so the first thing the first question that you
may ask yourself is what is an undergraduate as you probably know the
Buddha stands for adult education we only teach ahead of students we know
teach teenagers or children so to specialize we had a lot of workshops
about the internal team so what’s the connection between international
mediation and the courses that we organize at the display when excess play
a music an acronym standing for Italian army language school in town – if I say
it’s late teacher I mean a teacher working for the International School and
so the direction is that 10 years ago we started administering the course is
Italian courses for foreign officers only officers who come to Italy to
attend meals read courses in Rome before going to Rome on the Left require an SLP
a standardized the language profile in channel you are not familiar with the
designers language selphie these are the combination of the
the score that you can’t get the for language skills of listening reading
speaking writing and so firstly they come to display the entity’s proficiency
level and then they go to Rome so this is a summary of the points that we’re
going to cover and you can see the first one so this presentation will be divided
into two parts today with a focus our attention on the role of the sling and
the teacher is in the castle vagator will give a definition or will review
the definition of intercultural competence in language teaching so the
only difference in comparison with the whole of the other presentations that we
have so far is that the environment in my case that is an educational
environment so you have to identify with adhesion and we’re also taking over the
concept of culture and intercultural awareness by using the wonderful iceberg
of course the most important part of the presentation is an analysis of the most
important challenges that the teacher has to face in the intercultural clubs
or multicultural class and of course we also see how to face and how to cope
with the visa intercultural challenges what is my position we have devised that
after displaying to face these challenges so this plane this lip
organizes the language courses first of all for military personnel and so not
only are my personal motto so for example Navy and in the past also Air
Force officers not anymore because at the cabin
school and they got camper this way anymore but for example I remember that
a few years ago I took part in an English course for the supported JTAG
officers soldiers in general a jet copter is a party of soldier whose task
is to communicate with the pilot when giving directions about the air to
bombard and so we had to we were trained with our students and we also organized pouring officers in these supporting
officers account not only from different countries but all from different
continents so this means that in our Italian classes you may find that
students coming from Somalia could manage done talking about for example
the experiences by myself and China especially China and and so inevitably
the teacher has to become international behavior you know that you know fourth
is teaching technology to be successful in class and we handle it by October
workshops about the international mediation even if we call it differently
in nautical class and these are the conclusions
the ones that I’m going to show you so these are foreign officers attended
Artesia two horses in wrong the first is that John has sells his
stock college and we come in Italian coast released me
I’m sure that you know we soldiers the second is I don’t see me the defense and
I have Studies Institute it’s called the coastal hasta you after his name so we
have signed an agreement so with these friendly countries or MIT countries such
as a China of basic scientists and support they come to display they get
this qualification and they go to Rome o’clock tender discourses so who is that
the Italian teacher working at the Italian Army language school about the
physical qualifications they have a university in languages or in literature
or in other humanities the faculty is always in individual magnificent another
competence they are obtained at the end when they were techno tech nominal a lot
of courses looked at a lot of workshops living with an andragogy we ourselves
organized these workshops a better display and so he spoke is a as
interpersonal mediator and he or she tries to guarantee social and cultural
integration in the way in which we are going to see in a minute and who is the
average the foreign student well there are many differences of course in terms
of ethnicity religion gender age education cultural level in the same
castle and about the commonalities they are all officers Indian forces of
different countries and so you may believe not that the background is
common but it’s not it’s not because between an Afghan officer and in Italian
officer the matrix training they received is a completely different
some pages and they are used that they’re having experiences that differ a
lot and they are all of other students so this is important basically as I said
we don’t industries and children and so these imposes these our focus has to get
appointed with the strategies of andragogy we we had some meetings among
my colleagues and I had some meetings about what is strategy to use in the
course of the view and from in the traffic point of view so how can we say
after we become an intercultural competence and we found the decent
ethnography man devised by Dharma talk and educator Puck interesting so
basically if you want to translate this a diagram into the classroom activity
you can come to this with you so you become an intercultural competent if a
first of all you acquire as much information as possible about your
students so this means that even using it your students as a primary source of
information you come to know as much as you can about other cultures and
especially from the sociological socially we state the point of view and
then that you have to be done with certain skills in other words what I
mean here is that once you have learned about the characteristics of their
cultures you must be able to identify is a constituent elements when they show up
in the classroom it’s the same difference that for example you have
between understanding a grammatical rule and the recognizing
when you find it in a sentence for example so with these characteristics
they show up in the classroom you must be able to detective and act accordingly
and after developing these are skills that you also kept develop some
attitudes obviously and issues of having respect for foreign cultures as a as we
said so ineptitude I think the mother is coming respect in the sense that you have to
value other cultures is a fundamental and also in attitude of tolerance and
curiosity you have to see other cultures as a learning opportunity this is
something that we have already seen an OCR model said because we took a look at
the definition of culture several times apart but you know the vaquita you much
practice makes perfect as a as english usa’ and so characteristics and
knowledge of a particular group of people which we found direct this is the
definition of capture so captions are a combination of these effective realities
and identify a certain a certain focus of the community and what are these
components of capture you can see a list here and then we will define it is
components into a visible and hidden as we saw also last week and what is
important about cancer is that it’s a historical and dynamic it’s never static
and monolithic so it’s important to remember that cultural changes not only
in the course of in society the same and historically the
same sort of period you can have a lot of fundamental change but if it inside
the life of a single individual culture changes your culture the culture you
have a community nature is not the same structure that you can order when you
gotta get out so we have to get used to this
very flexible idea of culture and I like this definition here
Catherines the Menace through which individuals and interpreted their
environment and so this means that this interpretation of course that can change
over time but these are also makes us understand that very often this length
is represented by language language that gives us the answer to which interpret
reality we saw that in native languages for example there are no words to
express a certain phenomenon or a certain object in some cases for example
I found that on the Tahitian Highlands at the alignment of activity they don’t
have that they only have one word to indicate pain so physical pain emotional
sort of and diseases there is only one word and the for example in the forest
of Amazon they they can’t count they only have a few numbers one too many so
that’s all they have so imagine if the reason an expedition businessman from
Naples who would have to do business with this group Ebola so there would be
different of course and so this is the meaning of the lines that are each
individual’s interminable this is very flexible and of course we have to make
sure that our students get used to this idea of culture as a something extremely
dynamic and never bother with it this is a rice bowl so I think that I deserve the prize for
the best nation Casper and so of course and you know that there are visible
aspects of cultures in some and hidden aspects the deceive all elements of
culture are those that that we can imagine are people about the water
surface and so we have a facial expressions gestures or religion visual
arts in general so paintings research and so on and so forth you seen and
nobody for fishing purposes of these artistic amendments are not the problem
what can be a problem is that even at least below the surface the survey’s are
hidden and very often people don’t want to share these memories of culture so
please the importance that we have touched the time not only in terms of
punctuality but also for example that if you want to set a time limit for a
classroom activity many students and they feel feeling of discomfort there so
it’s important to make sure that they accept your conception of time your
concept of time otherwise you know your methodology may not maintain and also
the concept of fairness will dispel is unfair because about justice the
National friendship the concept of self so how we concede yourself and personal
spaces of proxemics we talked about proxemics before and
that these are changes from culture to culture and the rules of social
and so forth so what is the intercultural awareness in the castle
awareness is a durability to understand an issue from different viewpoints
because when you wake up to next slide that gives an example vacation what have
my recovery – and so of course the word intercultural includes all those aspects
that the shape the identity of a community of an individual when
interacting with other individuals so it you’ll see more or less the culture and
identity are synonymous expressions so when you define it the identity of our
people of our community I say our people in the sense of a population so the
people subject when you define the community are people you you are talking
about that culture and it’s a specialized I qualify the tool of
synthesis these are makes us understand back when there is an international
conflict very often there is a no solution for the conflict you just have
to reach a compromise a synthesis so this is what an intercultural mediator
is supposed to do so what are the typical pasts of intercultural mediators
and in some cases also moderators well language interpretation information
assistance training and also the form of teaching
conflict management etc and obviously at the Italian Army language school Italian
language teachers are supposed to acquire these intercultural awareness
and accessing the Khafre mediators are in the classroom because they have to
strengthen the social value take a look at that cross-cultural
training event in a minute so take a look after these absolutely
so first the balcony you can read everything covered the past arrives what
a cruel man who dominated cockroaches half naked and this is what she thinks
the the Muslim woman in America thinks of herself
nothing father the batter is what the crew of male-dominated culture now you
are an internationally competent if you are able to identify with both women so
you want the single people to understand the perspective without any prejudice so
this is what it means to be in a culturally competent and is a crisis in
the classroom on this way so what are the most important challenges that we
have to face in the classroom when dealing with multicultural classes there
are four types of camera were challenges as you can read here they are we’ll
analyze each one of them language bar in an educational background and
communication of course the go means to let’s say manager conflicts and
miscommunications that can originate from different sets of values let’s
start with the customer behaviour remote sensor control behaviors for example
here of course you believe that the basic systems of a presenting an
argument in the classroom changes from culture to culture imagine a situation
in which this is still about the swag you organize a conversation period so
you divided the students in the classroom into two groups and you
discuss for example capital punishment or divorce abortion and so on to be said
in favor of it one group is against it now the problem
here is that when they interact with each other if in managing your class do
you have an Asian students and the European students that may be a problem
because for example a man has I put America’s just America but even Europe
is a Western Mexican said so what Castle I own them but that you know it’s also
applicable to us in other words what we are used to make a point
stand up for it refuse the other so we checked and the other viewpoints and
then cocoon strongly but for example in Asian schools it doesn’t work this way
even when talking about analogical teaching
so teaching yet related to a metal students they have a completely
different attitude and so if you try to impose your viewpoint
you look like an arrogant person and so for this reason you may have a situation
in which you will receive an Asian student as a lazy
submissive in comparison we let Western students the second value obviously is
that represented by language and so if you don’t have a good
study of the language you know you don’t have a conversation with me has it done
reluctant to intervene and this of course may make it the other Western
failure as you can read it there students we understand the only salmon
water features sensor so they may lack the vocabulary to ask questions and so
what do they do they don’t speak at all very often and so the language buyer
here is one of the most important challenges that we have to face it
especially at the attended our main language school
the third challenge is represented by the educational background in here in
what sense an educational background not only for example at whether they have
the same qualifications or not but very often we have for example in some
countries even today they still use a teacher based and approach so the
teacher is the one who owns knowledge and in student is supposed to receive a
service knowledge without the interaction you know that in the Western
world when talking about talk about methodology not talking about the state
schools schools is a completely different story but you know whether you
organize a course for NL’s normally it’s a you adopt a student a centum approach
so you start from the needs analysis and all the bases on the needs of the
student syllabus and the Asian world they still
are still stuck to the old system that we have in Italy many years ago and and
so in this case you can have you know these are these different is a clutching
it against a background that will compromise and affecting the
effectiveness of your lesson and then of course at the fourth obstacle is a
communication also you know that language is only one component of
communication communication is something much more complex you also have a
nonverbal communication and of course they need to communicate with the deaf
teacher your students need to communicate with with you and also with
other peers and for example this is exactly what I told you before if you
have a discussion between Europeans and Asian’s that’s exactly the example I
gave you before Asian students very often find on Western students arrogant
when they try to impose a limiting point during a conversation period and vice
versa Western students can find that Asian students lately and we need to
participate these are not yes can I just make an example about attending the ten
advisor course in Sweden some years ago and we had students coming from
different five continents and he might indicate there was an Asian
female officer from Japan and there was a five hundred people and everybody was
taking initiative try to intervene try to give idea of the Cossack nation to
southern Japan it was she was like not taking part not feeling both like being
lazy for someone but actually she didn’t want you appear paragon she was waiting
for their turn to talk so she was waiting for us to have her opinion and
we understood that part just in very under the course which was a shame well you want to be turning in and don’t
raise your hand just be director is otherwise we will never take the fucking
disease at our doctor yet okay so now of course the most important
thing is to see how to tackle how to face at these challenges and as I
mentioned we don’t have any authority to change our students and so we have to to
alter we have to modify our teaching methodology and this is something that
we also heard this morning during the presentation and so we have to start
with the self-awareness very often we are not aware of the penguin realities
of our own culture especially when these integrity avenues over culture clash
with the cultures of our students and so the first thing to do is make sure that
the we are aware of the limits of our own culture especially in interaction
with other cultures and for example here what is the problem very often that we
are violate the rules of the cultures of our students and internationally or you
know we may even ask our students to violate these rules again
unintentionally so self-awareness of the peculiarities of our culture is a
fundamental how do we do that we have to implement cross cultural training this
is a conclusion we have come to and who made a long story short what is a
cross-cultural training professional training means that that you have to
make your student aware of the existence of these differences in other words a
typical mistake that we make in the classroom I’m talking about a
multicultural class is to pretend that these changes do not exist these are
these differences are not exist and so we minimize the problem we bring down
the problem you say if you are after all we shared
there’s no problem so I think that we can adopt a say method this is a big
mistake because then they would keep that these are differences to themselves
so at the certain point that India conflict and so you have to make sure
that your students a developer Indian cultural awareness then we’ve seen what
way you can make them get acquainted with these intercultural differences and
here you have an example if you asked a question to ancient students I had a
class of change and that can confirm it very often you will not receive an
answer to this question because they are particularly worried about the practical
figures about the losing face the ability world about it also considers a
figure or do nuisance seniors and so what we will do in order to solve this
problem I never asked for the correct answer to a question I asked so what do
you think about and then you no wonder he gives have been observing expresses
an opinion you can understand that if you got that you excavation you mustn’t
understand or not so you have to be indirect in the way in which you ask
questions what are the techniques that you can use from for constant
restraining the most important one is yet you have to make sure that your
students are exposed to critical incidents due to cultural differences so
in other words you have to present them with a lot of critical situations in
which cultural differences represent a challenge but not immediately this is
something that you can relate around of course you also have to communicate
about their expectations very often for example if they come from Asian
countries as I told you before they may be used it to a teacher centered
approach and of course if you are used to a mission methodology like that you
expect a theoretical lesson based on not not practice but theory and so this may
clash with your expectations as a teacher I was a positing Presta for
example when I filmed in that attendance form for this course one of the
questions was about my expect expectations from the course the thing
that is an important question to ask especially at the beginning of the
course and it is also important to gather than classroom discussions
initially in other words that when I organized the first a conversation
periods between among your students coming from different continents it is
of an ability to monitor the activities to see the probability of having young
clashes the beginning important purpose of the course is very very high so your
presence the presence of the teacher is fundamental otherwise there would be a
lot of conflicts and you have to start by making your students that share their
similarities this is something that my colleagues and I believe it’s a good
method so one of the first lessons may be based on this exercise
ok recognize all the characteristics of the Italian culture then you can also
identify in your home country so the comparison between the host nation and
the home country or also the countries of the classmates so this way they feel
that they have a lot of commonalities with their classmates and after they get
acquainted if their commonalities you may focus on
the cultural differences but is the second step and he would way by exposing
get learners to critical incidents and in order to do so in order to expose
computable incidents you can use the two methods based basically the first is the
dialogical method so conversations in class guided by the teacher so you don’t
create that past you don’t create groups you discuss certain situations that can
be protected for a naughty cultural reasons and for example you can ask them
a question like how would you react in the circumstances here we have a
practical examples you import the college to lunch and you learn that the
only foods you have a foreign client and you don’t understand his accent so what
would you do would you ask him to repeat to interrupt the conversation so very
practical questions about the situations that may happen to be real life your
informant company can often arrives late for meetings and appointments and this
is related to the water so we are attached to time to punctuality for
example or you are transferred to another office in a foreign country and
you’re worried about a certain stereotypes so what would you protect
yourself from stereotypes these are typical critical incidents in which
probably they have already found themselves and so you can discuss them
together and how to serve conclusions okay besides that the
biological message you can also use the wrong place you can reduce the same
situations as the ones that you use the forty are there was no method but what
is the advantage of using wrong place wrong place that first of all allow your
students to take into consideration those are minor aspects of an
interaction that if you only base the lesson on a conversation not normally
neglected and unknown in order and so it’s a good introduction on a real life
invention situation in which you have to talk about the check points now one
thing is a if you discussed how the check on works another thing is to play
a role play so even a double play and in this way you can for example of the
attention to details of unforeseen circumstances what would you do for
example if the via the personal searched does not want to cooperate what you use
in those cases also wrote plays that are important because they take into
consideration the minor details that are not only ignore that in a conversation
period and another advantage of always is fact they make your students aware of
the importance of nonverbal communication so this means that for
example you understand that we saw it at this morning so a certain adjust
may have a completely different meanings according to the culture and rock plays
give the opportunity to get acquainted with these cultural differences in terms
of a nonverbal communication this was important that is backed by news of
wrong place at the theological method your students get appointed with the
visa cultural differences and some people state some philosophers say that
the more you know something you want you get to know something the more you fall
in love with it and so this means that we normally which actor what we don’t
know but the more we know something what we become tolerant and in some cases
embrace for example a new religion and your culture just because we know all
the details of this evolution and culture so it’s important to use an
emotional method and the localizer for these reasons learning styles are
fundamental when it interacted with a multicultural class first of all the
book is a Brahmins time we’ll take a look at learning stuff in the second
part of the presentation that are given the depth of Mora anyway to make a long
story short a learning style is that your favorite way of learning if you
want to imagine a method of study these are when it’s time maybe for example if
you were investor for example if you listen to a verbal explanation or could
also be physical if you learn better before exam
you are in the wrong way you take part in the wrong play it’s so visual but
you’re not better wonder for example you see a picture and so it is important to
understand that these are learning styles that are also affected by the
culture of origin is so for example that the relationship between the teacher and
the student may affect the learning style was that if you are used at a
certain kind of a teaching methodology also the allurement style is affected by
a particular relationship or interaction in plants the relationship between
students for example if you are used to working in pairs of work in groups or
not if you’re used to individual and performance even the importance we
attach to time Kenneth was your learning style or for example the learning
process as I told you before so via beaker action between the student and
the teacher if you give more emphasis on theory or another application and also
if you are Houston Food Technology if you don’t make any use of computers for
example and in the host country they make a large use of computers you may
have problems with your memory style and for example and after display very often
we only give n900 for our students we don’t give any favorite books so it’s
important to be appointed with technology and so the spider will at
least I’m using the phone cancer can it was the student skills so what should we
do in order to make sure that independently of the students of
learning style our teaching methodology is successful well mechanism to offer
our students an explanation based on the different learning styles I am nobody
here example when rotation because this is not the first
time that I’m dealing with a learning styles and so imagine a situation in
which to a new active explain the use of the past simple in combating the use of
the past perfect now you can explain this grammatical rule of Ernie
and so we accommodate those students that whoever the predominant vulnerable
learning style but for example you can you can draw a timeline on the border
you can think of a sentence like when I arrive the debtor stationed at them are
stated the Train of had already left so this is a ten o’clock the train arrived
at the station and this is a before when the string that had already left so you
can resolve the timeline and so this way you can accommodate those students that
were a predominant visual memory style and in all cases using a visual
materials is beneficial for all types of students independently of the various
times especially for example if you are dealing with absolute beginners if you
deal with students who never studied Italian they’re models and they come to
Italy and they are in the first stages of the course if you make much use of
visual reading materials it was certainly accelerated the target process
and this was important especially when you discuss at your political subjects
you know that that effortlessly in a finite example in the both in speak in
and variety we deal with a job meeting of subjects and so when we rehearse when
we do mock tests in class we did with the juridical subject so you have to be
very careful because if you have for example a student with German and you
talk about a Second World War and for example you
criticise the the Nazi regime and since I’m if you may get offended and so you
have to be very careful when you are in the process of a multicultural class and
you deal with the geopolitical subjects and whenever you express you as a
teacher express your viewpoint you have to make
sure that you can rest your statements on the solid sources in other words you
have to make sure that whatever you say can be referred to indisputable sources
of information you ended it possible you should avoid expressing personal
opinions in some cases you can’t and so you have to a sound that is objective as
possible what you should avoid doing it is especially this first of all as we
know we should avoid a nonverbal behaviour because of visa number one
contender’s have a different meanings that according to the character from so
we should avoid abrasive hands I can’t act heaven also be sort of this morning
and for example this is a situation that I found in my experience I had a Somali
student was a master obviously and like we did and then totally said Manor
Somali students in a group over will also had in Albanian female students and
I noticed that there was a stock of embarrassment in that
and so you have to make sure that these are must in men as no problems
interacting with the women you know that we can’t generalize we can say the
masculine culture and that’s it no we have a different levels of
radicalization and so it’s important to make sure that your muscle students have
no problems with women interact in this movement you should also try to avoid
getting at too familiar and with the Chinese students agency that’s in
general because of they are used to suck all the power distance so in other words
they perceive the presence of the teacher as the presence of the authority
and so the relationship is a symmetrical and the easy porta for you at least
initially return for to avoid a comment my first language it is also so that the
little Manito they get used the confusion to the Western tradition as a
customs of also educational value but at least initially you should avoid getting
too familiar with the Asian students the hidden Palace and so they have promised
to interact with you and for the same reason this is something that we already
have you should ask direct questions to Asian students because they are
particularly afraid for tactical figures of losing face now what is the
connection between teaching and the role of you know played by and in the early
years of the singing contest when communication is the common denominator
because when you interact with an of interlocutors you can connect Thomas Lee
and the when you interact with the students with Arab students communicate
as well and so communication also the same
is based on the same principles and so if you can acquainted with an underdog
team that is education you will also be able to explore this knowledge for
communication in general with adults and including for civic purposes and so just
a couple of the slides to introduce you to the topic of the presentation that
Allah gives at the day after tomorrow woodie’s andragogy I told you already
that by andragogy you mean an adult education and so we’re not learning a
teaching in any form the first caller who used the discernment was a German
educator with Center counterpart the main scholar the been a researcher in
200 or G is a mahkum knows if you just a year ago forget this time around Malcolm
knows is the one that you know analyzed in a limited way that the concept of a
technology and the manor had a very exhaustive list of all those
characteristics that define a technology is important to pedagogy and so the
Noguchi comes from mentioned Greek and the national cricket means a man
bleeding as opposed to an apology which means the
cheerleading you know that today when we say to her poetry so this term has
undergone an evolution we refer to teaching in general this is a pedagogy
in Italian we use a DDoS attack but the music didactics in English is not
exactly the same the necklace the negative connotation so if you want
to translate the Latin Arctica you can say pedagogy or just addition
methodologies and so this is exactly what we are going to focus on the day
after tomorrow and I know in one of the slides and there was a piece of
information is a movie but these interpersonal confidence is not
something that you can acquire in a certain amount of time it’s just like
the concept of a learning like one day sir all your life you can
only promise for example with experience you can get accustomed to a defect
economies of the circuit culture but you mean experience and of course you can
also study the sunset the end but very often you will see that these challenges
at present we know students and the different levels and so for example
talking about masters you can generalize and so it is often a good idea to use it
for example test for this because sex your students completeness or point of
view asking them questions directly or also in writing and then you can it’s
not the question video snooping could be given answer but it’s a question of you
know equality information you know the to prove your teaching
methodology but of course that there’s no general method that can say we are
the poor over in the factual context absolutely not that’s the dish of the day so nobody is
eager to ask question I’ll let you thank you and imagine plays a professor
responds both and you are you probably know that this presentation last part of
the course and it just came out after proposal my professor has also in order
to give an additional tool an additional value to the overall who’s taking
advantage of either professional fears or Louise so I think erasmus+ my
pleasure okay

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