The Medical Aspects of the Crucifixion

several years ago as a medical man I began to wonder exactly why it was that Christ died from a medical standpoint and I know that we are told repeatedly that he died on the cross but from a medical standpoint actually what did cause his immediate death I am I need to mention some individuals who have written on the subject most of the information that I'm going to be given will be taken from research in Roman history various books and to a large extent to an article by a doctor each room and Davis who appeared in the the who wrote an article which appeared in the Arizona Medical Association magazine in the 1960s entitled the crucifixion I have been concerned because of several things number one I do not believe that Christ was a meek mild anemic individual and I cannot picture him that way and yet that's the type of pictures that we often see Pro traying what Christ must have looked like at the time he was on earth as you know the area around Jerusalem is very very much like a desert area very similar to my own home area of Phoenix Arizona and we know that Christ walked from one place to another he was not an individual who who was able to go by car he had to walk the dusty byways and as such he had to be a much stronger individual and normally portrayed in fact I have always thought that most of the portrayals of him make him look as if he is either anemic or in the very last stages of tuberculosis and I do not believe that Christ was that way and so I began to study a bit about what will actually happen when a person was crucified and when they were scourge from the standpoint of Roman history and so I want to share with you some of those impressions and some of the medical reasons that we can project as a possible cause of Christ's death on the cross now we know that Wednesday was a very quiet day in Jerusalem we know that that Christ and His apostles were at the house of Mary where they / took of the what we would normally call the Last Supper and then following that time Christ with at least three of the disciples Peter James and John crossed the Kidron Creek on his way to the Garden of Gethsemane now I would have to mention the condition probably of Kidron Creek when he crossed it because this would have a great effect emotionally on almost any individual particularly if he knew that he was going to have to go to the cross himself as a sacrifice for us usually at the time of the Passover just before the Passover there were thousands of animals that were slaughtered and as they were slaughtered on the altar there was a groove in that altar and a trough that left a Kedron Creek so that that Creek probably was running red with blood it would not have been unusual it was that way quite often when Christ crossed that Creek and then when he came to probably what was the temple area the temple would have been covered with vines the walls and you probably remember then that great sermon that he gave I am the vine and you are the branches he went from there then to go cemani and we're told that he went up the mountain of Gethsemane to pray three different times he asked the three apostles to to wait and pray with him while he was on the mountain as each time as you know they were asleep when he came down to talk to them but one time when he was on the mountain praying it we are told in the scriptures that that the sweat poured from him and as blood actually I suppose in the vernacular we would have to say that he sweated blood during that particular time theologians for years of to explain that away there's no need to there is a medical condition called Hamato Stros Asst Aichi m80 is dro SCS it's recognized condition it is a condition whereby a person under a great deal of stress will have the little capillaries at the base of each of our each of the sweat glands rupture so that is the sweat pores floor fourth under great emotion blood is lost and rather copious amounts now as I said that's a recognized medical condition we do not have to explain it away certainly it would give us an idea about the emotional aspect of the prayers of Christ on the Mount of before he returns the Garden of Gethsemane usually in a medical sense a person with this condition of a maddest grossest would to go into shock because of blood loss and very often they die but it's enough to be said that since our body is covered with thousands and thousands in fact millions of sweat glands if the little capillaries at the base of each sweat gland were to rupture then a person would lose a tremendous amount of blood after his prayers on the garden I mean at Gethsemane he went down and with his disciples and about midnight we're told that a large company of Roman soldiers the word that's used would normally mean a group of about six hundred men who came to arrest him now I have wondered well why did they send six hundred men to arrest one man well in fact if we had a great leader these days whom just a few days before had been followed into town and hailed as a king with crowds of people praising him and and shouting Hosanna and spreading palm trees palm leaves in his path we would probably expect that if we were going to arrest such a leader that we must absolutely carry enough men to take care of the mobs now the mobs were not there as we know I think this is rather interesting though that those 600 men according to one place in the per scripture were caused to fall backward to the ground by a simple three words of Christ those three words were I am he someone said where is this Christ that that we're looking for and Christ said I am he and and one of the scriptures says that when he said that the all of the Roman soldiers fell backward to the ground now we know I think that's important for us to realize it makes us realize exactly what the sacrifice of Christ was on that cross because he could have stopped the whole procedure at any time he didn't he knew what he was going to have to go through he knew the suffering and the agony and yet by three simple words he could cause a whole group of Roman soldiers to fall to the ground we know another for in another way that Christ could have stopped it anytime he wanted from his own words because in that garden if you remember Peter was told not to resist at all and yet Peter being who he was and with his impetuous nature pulled his sword and cut off the ear of Marcus one of the one of the men who came Christ replaced that ear showing some of his mercy some of his love for mankind even the adversary and he informed Peter that if I had wanted legions of angels I could have had legions of angels to resist this arrest so you see he could have called on legions of angels to stop it or he could by his own words have stopped the whole procedure he chose not to do so and he chose not to do so because he knew that which he must do I say that particularly to prevent some people from having the idea that Christ wished to not have to go through the crucifixion enough that on the Mount in his prayers he said ask his father if this cup if it's possible let this cup pass from me that was not what he meant he was not trying to prevent what he knew that he must do he was willing to sacrifice his life and go through agony for us and I think we should keep that in mind all the time that we're discussing the crucifixion now after he was arrested which was somewhere around midnight he was taken to the house of honest honest was not really the the chief priest but this was not a legal trial at any time because it occurred at night and that was against Jewish law but actually was taken to the house of honest because honest was a father-in-law of Caiaphas who was the chief priest at that particular time and I guess honest was the power behind the throne and there he was questioned over and over we know that at that time Christ received the first physical blows because we're told that he was mocked that he was spat upon that actually he was struck by at least one soldier because he refused to answer a question so he underwent a great deal of abuse remember now also that he has walked a considerable distance after having been at the Last Supper and had lost a great deal of blood with the sweating of blood on the as he was praying so a normal man would have been in a weakened condition a normal man would probably have not been able to go through the trial that he went through during that night we know that he was taken back and forth from honest to Caiaphas during the night the Jews did not attempt to take him to Pilate that night because of course that would have been against their Jewish law but they did keep him from having any rest whatsoever he was unable to sleep so he has gone through also a sleepless night I'm not we we are told that at during none of this time was he given anything to either eat our drink and this becomes important later on when we talk about the actual cause of death of Christ now eventually he was taken to Pilate and when he was taken to Pilate you know the story and I won't go into all the questions and all of them I knew details except that it seems that Pilate felt that he did not want any part of this execution and he sent Christ to Herod Herod then of course also did not want any part of it and sent him back to Pilate Pilate was forced to do something we are told simply that after a period of time Pilate decided I made the statement I find nothing wrong in this man but the crowd still call for his crucifixion then we're told that Pilate cause Christ to be scourge now this was an unusual situation before a crucifixion scourging was usually not necessary in fact scourging itself was very often a very punishment which led to death now let's examine a little bit the Roman custom of scourging in the first place they use something similar to to this implement that I have here it's called a flagellum in the in the Roman history books and it usually had as I have shown here a very short handle it had from 3 to 9 large heavy leather straps each one of those leather straps about an inch from the end had a lead ball or in some cases a dumbbell shaped piece of lead about an inch from the end of each strap and then again about a foot from the end of each strap there was a second lead ball if you have read anything about the Shroud of Turin and if you happen to believe in that the indication there was that the flagellum that was used was three had three straps instead of the motor ones multiple ones that I have shown here and the lead was supposedly dumbbell shaped if you're to believe that story of the Shroud of Turin but what happened then in Roman history when a person was couraged well in the first place the individual to be scourge was stripped of all of his clothes and then he was tied his hands were tied together and they were then suspended from the ceiling by a rope around their hand so that they could barely be on their tiptoes now there was a reason for this a person that was pulled up in that way could not move either forward or backward to resist the full force of the blows so Christ was suspended and this way with his hands above his head and then the Roman soldier who did the actual scourging would stand back with the flagellum in half in hand and then strike the person to be scourge repeatedly with all of his strength with this particular type of implement it might be interesting to note that the Jewish law required that anyone who was to be scourge was not to be struck more than 40 times so someone has said that Christ was not struck more actually than 39 because the Jewish were very Jews were very careful if the law said not more than 40 they decided that they would be extra careful and they usually used 39 lashes but we have to remember that this was not the case insofar as Jesus was concerned necessarily because he was not flogged by the Jews he was flogged by the Roman soldiers now what happens in a scourging well as the person is struck first on their back and and the legs with this particular strap these little LED balls anywhere that they might strike would cause a rupture of the blood vessels just underneath the skin so that little blebs would form on the skin and those blebs would be full of blood a simple explanation is a blood blister we've all had those when we've pinched a finger or something of that sort and then as they continue to strike the individual with this the little blebs would be ruptured and as the blebs were ruptured then a bleeding would start now the capillaries immediately under the surface of the skin and the dermis part we would call it those blood vessels are very small their capillary so the bleeding at first would not be heavy but as they continued to strike with this flagellum it would begin to tear through the upper layers of the skin and dig into what we call the epidermis of the portion of skin the subcutaneous tissue below the skin itself and that contained much larger blood vessels and then when those began to be torn the bleeding would become rather copious they would continue to strike the individual and as they continue to do this the skin would eventually be torn into shreds and these balls these LED balls would begin to bite not only into the the subcutaneous tissue but into the muscle itself perhaps it's enough to say that in Roman history a person who was couraged in that manner usually at the end of the scourging the skin of the back would actually hang in shreds and even the muscles themselves would be torn and bleeding would be extremely heavy because the blood vessels in the and the muscles themselves are quite large so that the bleeding would be copious now you remember that Christ has lost blood on the Mount he has had no sleep he's not he's not had anything either to eat or drink during this period of time and now he has lost a great deal of blood and undergone a great deal of torment suffering by the simple scourging now the Bible only says very simply that Christ was couraged and then it sells us that after he was scourged the next thing that happened was that they placed a purple robe upon his back and put the crown of thorns on his head now the crown of thorns is something that we have in Arizona is a plant it is made up of a very sharp thorns of about this limp and actually the plan itself has a SAP and even as these little thorns are broken this SAP would seep into a wound and it's a poisonous SAP in the green type of the plant and that in itself could be a danger now we were told after he was put after the purple robe was put on his shoulders the crown of thorn was put on his head and then he was struck repeatedly by soldiers on his head so that these thorns would be driven into the skull actually into the skin to the skull and if you've ever cut your head at any time you know that the scalp is generously furnished with blood vessels so that anytime you injure it the bleeding is perfused so again we have a cause for bleeding and then we're told that after the crown of thorns and after he was pushed in a put into the purple robe that he was still struck several times that he was mocked and spit upon and then he was pushed out on the balcony and the people were told behold your king then we're simply told that he was taken back into the area and that the purple robe was taken from his shoulders now I don't know about you but I imagine most of us have had the occasion at least as children when we were rollerskating or riding bicycles that we've had occasion to fall and what we would say in the vernacular skin a knee I suppose in the medical I should say we produce an abrasion on a knee now once that happened when I was a child I did not dread the scrape itself as much as I dread the treatment because as soon as I got home my mother would always wash that which hurt in itself but then she'd put on a nice clean bandage now this was the days before tough are the non-stick dressings if you remember and so that nice clean dressing would be put on and taped in place then I had another dread I dreaded the time that had to come off because if you've ever had that sort of thing happen you know that that dressing the cloth will stick to the wound actually what happens is the blood goes into the fibers of the cloth and when that happens then clotting occurs that when it's removed it removes all of that surface and the bleeding and the pain would be all over again to be suffered now we're simply told that Christ had the robe removed when he went back into the area but think must what must have happened to that back that had been so torn by the scourging as they removed the robe from him it had the blood had saturated and clotted then it would start the bleeding all over again and it would be just as bad and perhaps even worse than it was in the first place but that's we're only told that they removed the robe and then Christ was required to walk to the gall Gotha where he was to be crucified this is about 650 yards and it would naturally be uphill as Christ made that walk up the hill we're told that he carried the cross and now I think it's time that we discussed a little bit about the cross and the type of cross that was used for crucifixion the idea of crucifixion probably came from Persia originally and it came by a way of Alexander the Great it was introduced throughout that part of the world at that time and the Romans probably picked up the idea through the through having been carried to that area by Alexander the Great the Romans had a way of perfecting anything of that sort particularly in punishment and so they probably had altered the original type of crucifixion somewhat from the way it was practiced in Persia now crucifixion actually there was two kinds of cross that were used there was a cross that was shaped somewhat like this that was set in place and then the individual was lifted up and nailed or tied to that cross at the time of crucifixion this was not the type of cross that was normally used by the Romans instead they used a cross that was shaped more like this and for obvious reasons that was called the top cross you see if the t-tau of course meaning the letter T now someone will say yes but why is it then that the cross is always pictured in this configuration well if you'll think a bit you'll remember that as the cross was was in place then we're told that there was a the titulus are our sign was put on top which stated King of the Jews and three languages now if I put such a sign there you can conjectural ii imagine that this would again look more like the type of cross that we that's normally pictured that christ was carrying however we can be fairly sure not only because of the fact that the romans used the talked cross rather than the other type more there is another reason that we can be relatively sure that the that christ was crucified on the type of cross like this and that is that with a wood that was available in the area at that time this cross arm are the plateau Beulah maz they would cause call it would weigh about at least a hundred pounds with almost any of the woods that would have been used now if you will think then that since Christ was raised above the crowd so that they could see his suffering and so that the Romans and the Jews could could have make sure that the crowd were looking up to see him then this portion was probably quite tall there's another reason we know it was tall and that was because of the fact that if you remember in in the account of the crucifixion that one of the soldiers offered a sponge mixed with with sour wine and go up to Christ on the cross and it said that he actually the words are mean that they probably put that on a lance so that they could reach up to where he was so we know he was quite high in that case this portion are the state bees as they call it had to be quite large and it usually was set in place at the point that the individual who was to be crucified in that place that he was be crucified so this was set in the ground and remained in that part the part that the individual was usually required to carry was this part of the Platinum now normally they would tie this to the individuals back as as they marched up to the place of a crucifixion in this case Golgotha imagine if you can again this is rough hewn it was not a nice plain smooth piece of lumber but it was rough hewn with an axe and because of that it would be a very rough thing now imagine again if you will having this tied to your back when the back is so torn and the muscles even exposed and all of the nerves exposed and as you're walking up trudging up that hill or imagine just imagine what would happen every time that hundred pound weight of wood would shift and move as you with every step you took so it's no wonder that about halfway up the area to go Gotha that we're told that Christ fell and then he was assisted to carry the cross the rest of the way now remember this Christ has not had sleep he's had nothing to eat or drink he has lost blood on many occasions the last of which was the very fact that this heavy wooden beam on his back would have torn open the blood vessels and caused rather copious bleeding at that time so it is important for us to realize that Christ was not a meek mild individual he must have been a very strong individual and even with help from his father in heaven he must have been extra strong to be able to go as far as he did before he was unable to go further from a physical standpoint now once the individual then arrives at the place of execution our crucifixion then certain other things happen number one this portion the particular is thrown down upon the ground and then the person to be crucified is thrown backwards also on the ground and the hands were placed on each side one on each side of the cross itself of the particular cross arm of the cross and then the person's is nailed the the hands were nailed to the cross again I have seen pictures showing Christ being with a hands tied to the cross I don't know why they would do that except I'll explain a little bit later if they do not want an individual to die rapidly with crucifixion then they very often did tie the hands to the cross and I've also seen platforms placed on the cross so that people could rest their feet again they allowed that only if they wanted the individual on the cross to live for a longer period of time but if they wanted him to die very soon they did not use the platform they nailed both the feet in the hands not too many years ago with some excavations in Jerusalem with the building of new buildings and in fact it was near one of the great gates of Jerusalem original gates with some digging or excavation they brought up some metatarsal bones actually the metatarsal bones of of an individual and it showed that then that those bones were still held together by a nail somewhat like this so we do know that that's a kind of a proof that this was a type of execution or crucifixion that was carried on at the time because it roughly dated with the time of Christ supposedly on analysis now the nails that were used again we're not normal nails they were not just simple round nails they were roughly forged they were usually square they usually were about seven inches long and somewhat roughened from being forged and the normal method now again we are told are we are shown in a lot of cases that the nail was driven through the palm of the hand in this manner for the person to be suspended on the cross well this has actually been tried by various ones just with dead bodies to see whether what would happen if you tried to suspend somebody from nails driven through the palms invariably when this was attempted the nail would tear through and it would be impossible to suspend the individual on the cross so the usual place the Romans put the nails was in this part of the of the I suppose you'd say wrists and it's possible if you feel in this area you can feel an indentation here and that's the area exactly that the nail was usually placed and in experiments that's shown that that will hold a great deal of weight if it's placed there now that's important again it's important for the fact that in this area there are large nerves the radial nerve the owner nerve if the nail is placed through this portion of the wrist by the way and and probably the reason they say the palm is because even today medically and back then also when they talked about the palm they included this portion of the of the hand or when they talked about the hand they include this portion of the wrist so we could today say through the hand and still mean this area but when this nail is driven through this area it comes very close to the large nerves I suppose to help you to understand what kind of pain would involve I would have to remind those of you who have ever been to a dentist and had a tooth filled and then you went home after having had that tooth filled with silver and perhaps you were eating with a knife I mean hopefully not a knife with a fork and you touch that filling it's almost like an electric shock there's an intense pain and that's because of an electrical charge that's caused by the presence of the two metals together well that's the sort of pain you could expect if this nail had been driven very close to those large nerves now the individual was thrown backwards as I say with their arms not outstretched like this but bent just about like this they were thrown backwards and then they the hands were nailed to this portion of the cross the potatoe particular cross arm and then the individual with the Platinum was raised up and then set on top of the stay Pease which was already in the ground at the time now at that time then they probably would have placed the the title or titulus on top of that and then they would nail the feet to the steep ease of the cross again when they nailed those feet together they did not nail them just in a simple way but there was a very formal way in which they did this usually the left foot was always placed over the right foot such as this and then the nail was nailed through the tarsal are the bones of the feet so that then as the individual was suspended he was not suspended like this and straight up but with a knees slightly bent and with the arms also slightly bent so that they were on the cross and about the position that I am in at this time now this again is relatively important it's important because that is the manner in which the executions are crucifixions were normally carried out and it has a great deal to do with the medical conditions that arise the usual cause of death on the cross is asphyxiation the individual is no longer able to breathe now why does that happen as Christ was suspended on the cross every time he needed to push himself up to take the pressure off of this very painful area of the wrist he would have to push up with his feet in legs when that happened he would apply a great deal of pressure to the bones and the nerves and the feet that pain also would be excruciating so after a while and tiring then after pushing himself up or pulling himself up to take the pressure off the feet then he would drop back down the pressure again would be on the hands so any position is an extremely painful condition it's today it would be almost impossible for us to realize the extent of the degree of pain that's involved in such a barbaric sort of an execution but it was fairly common in those days so we do have some of the information that I've been giving you now what happens after a while in hanging in this position the pectoral muscles actually the muscles of the chest will become paralyzed perhaps before that happens they will begin to the the muscles of the arms and of the legs will begin to go into severe cramps those cramps of course are something like what we would normally call charley horses now a charley horse is not a very interesting thing to have if you've ever woken up at night with a charley horse you know that it's extremely painful you don't know whether to straighten out the leg to bend it or what to do but it's an extremely painful thing imagine if you will having that kind of pain involving all the muscles of the body now after a while as I said these pectoral muscles are the muscles of the chest become paralyzed they no longer are able to function as they should and the muscles of the chest or the pectoral muscles extremely important for the purpose of respiration we can breathe in without the use of the pectoral muscles but it is almost impossible when these muscles become paralyzed and and the muscles of the upper abdomen become paralyzed just due to fatigue and accumulation of waste products which I'll explain later when those are paralyzed it's almost impossible to breathe out so it's easy to breathe in perhaps but impossible to breathe out but it is also impossible to breathe in without having exhaled some of the air within the lungs prior to that time now I think I would like to digress here just a moment to remind you that Christ had seven different things that was said when he was on the cross the first three of those had to do not with himself in spite of the pain he was going through but it had to do with the care of others the first thing that he said was forgive them father for they know not what they do he was asking forgiveness for the very individuals who were so torturing him now the second thing he he had a statement about taking care of his mother and then the third thing was to the thief on the cross near him when he said today you will be with me in paradise understand what a what a sacrifice this was just to make those three statements because we do not speak when we breathe in we have to breathe in and then expel air in order to speak so every breath of Christ on the cross at that time was so important because his every tissue in his body was crying out for oxygen at that time and yet he used that precious air to to speak of others and to help others not just for himself now what else would happen on the cross well you remember that he's lost a great deal of blood you remember that he's had nothing to drink whatsoever there is a process with loss of blood called dehydration in which there is a decrease in the amount of fluid that is occupying the vascular system once that happens the blood begins to thicken and as that blood begins to thicken it is not circulated as well through the body the body requires that the blood be circulated in order to do two things number one to carry oxygen to the muscles and to the vital parts of the body but secondly it is to carry the waste products from those muscles to the lungs and to the kidneys and other organs for excretion of the waste products when this when the blood becomes very much thickened it cannot flow as it should so it is unable to carry the oxygen it should carbon dioxide and waste products begin to accumulate in the muscles and when that happens it causes first the cramping that we talked about and then secondly almost mercifully perhaps in this case it begins to cause a numbing effect over a prolonged period of time so that the muscles become numb then paralyzed as we have suggested now another thing happens under dehydration we know that when a person has a decreased blood supply has a buildup of waste products within the body and when the blood is not circulating as it should then there's something occurs that we called an electrolyte imbalance electrolyte meaning potassium sodium magnesium and carbon dioxide actually when that begins to get when that it begins to get upset that electrolyte balance then there is a very definite effect upon the body itself an effect which eventually without correction will lead to death but usually it would not occur as fast as we know that Christ died on the cross now we have discussed the type of cross and why they nail the feet and why they did nail the hands and why they use this kind of cross without something to stand on because we've said that that's when they want an individual to die sooner it is possible for a person on the cross if they are able to stand upon something to lift themselves to sometimes live for several days but in Roman times if they again if they wanted the person to die as quickly they used none of these systems and as I said before when the muscles become paralyzed the person dies of a fixation of the the inability to get any air within the lungs are to expel air from the lungs now the only way a person in the position of crucifixion could expel air was to push with those nailed feet and pull with the hands so that the pressure actually down would compress the chest somewhat and cause some air to be exhaled and when that happened then they were able to take in some new air so that is the only way that Christ could possibly have breathed are taken in any oxygen whatsoever and that a lot of part of the crucifixion by pushing with those feet and pulling up with those hands the pain again even an enum state would be an excruciating type of thing now something else begins to happen because of the dehydration because of the electrolyte imbalance because of the position that the individuals in and the building up of waste products the heart itself begins to have to function to pump against tremendous pressure actually it's hard because that thickened blood to circulate so the heart will struggle trying to pump it around the brain is crying for oxygen the vital organs of the body including the heart muscle itself is crying for oxygen so that the hardest pumping as hard as it can and but that sluggish blood will not flow as it should now after a period of time under those conditions there is a fluid limp we call it the liquid part of the blood which begins to be forced out of the blood vessels into the tissues themselves around the cells in the body that causes something we would call in the legs or the abdomen edema or a collection of fluid within the body that's a very common thing under this circumstance but something else more significant happens actually there is a lining or a pericardium around this heart muscle it's kind of like an envelope or a sack it dilates to a certain extent with the heart muscle and moves with a heart muscle but as the heart is struggling to pump the blood actually after a period of time it begins to force the tissue through the weakened heart muscle in to the pericardium or the SAC around the heart that begins to fill with the fluid and as it fills with a fluid it becomes dilated and it becomes dilated it causes more pressure on that struggling heart so that the heart now is trying to pump against the thickened blood trying to move that much thickened blood and at the same time it's trying to work against this collection of fluid in the pericardium are the lining around the heart which is causing pressure upon it now is that all conjecture well know medically that could that would be a very normal sequence for what I have described and then there's another reason that we can feel that this filling of the pericardium was real you remember that we are told when the soldiers went around to determine whether or not Christ was alive or dead at the end of the crucifixion we're told that they thrust a spear into his side now pictures all show that that spear went in about in this area on the right side of the body that may have been done in the case of Christ but usual that was not the usual method of determining our making sure that an end of was dead the Romans were well-aware the fact that the heart was a very vital organ so if they wanted to make sure that a person was dead they usually thrusts the spear into the left side between the fourth and fifth rib because as they thrust it between those ribs they would reach the heart itself and and rupture the heart and then the person for sure was dead no question about it now we have said then that but regardless so whether it went here or whether it went here we're told and as they thrust the spear in that there was okay that blood and water came forth now this could very easily mean and probably could be used as an adequate proof that they punctured the pericardium or this sac around the heart and that the Floyd began to drain out but we're told that it was not only water or Floyd but it was also blood that drained out now this could mean several things if Christ were not already dead and of course could mean that it punctured the heart and some of the blood from inside the heart came out but since he was already dead at the time this occurred the probability is that the blood was also in the pericardial sac along with the water or fluid and the only way in which that could have happened would be that there was a rupture actually of the heart is that possible medically well yes because of the heart muscles action and and working so hard pushing so hard to try to first force that blood around and and the struggle of pushing and like that with a decreased oxygen supply by the way such a decreased oxygen supply to the heart muscle would also produce pain which we now call heart the same kind of pain that a person has with heart trouble and that pain is excruciating it gives a feeling of crushing of the chest it goes down the arm it can be a terrible terrible pain and a person who's had this is probably the only one who can describe to you how terrible at pain was so remember that that heart now is without oxygen pumping against all the odds pumping against the pressure the heart muscle has been weakened by the cumulation of waste products and the lack of oxygen so it is possible that the heart did actually rupture and some of the blood go into the pericardium so that when the sword I mean when the spear was thrust into the side then that pain I mean the blood and water that came forth came from the pericardium and would indicate that the heart was ruptured you'll remember that the old testament in its prophecy said that christ that not a bone of his would be broken now the usual way in which the romans carried out the executions was to go by and break the legs of the individuals on the cross now why that because you remember i said the only way an individual could breathe would be to push or get air out of the lungs so that they could bring in good air would be to push upward on their legs and lift with their arms now if the legs the bones of the legs were broken it would be impossible for them to push up so that the the paralyzed pericardial muscles not pericardial pectoral muscles would not be functioning and a person would actually die of asphyxiation the same way smothering if you will they could not get air in in or out any longer and so they died and that's the reason for what they call the cruel faction or the breaking of bones but when they came to christ they found that he was already dead and as such it fulfilled a prophecy that not a bone of his body was broken from a medical standpoint then christ died of blood loss dehydration leading to a type of shock leading to a failure completely of the heart to be able to function and quite probably leading to rupture of the heart someone has said that this is equated with with a broken heart and that's perhaps I proposed to say I only know this I only know that after having studied this never again will I say that Christ suffered for me or for you without a different feeling than I had before this cross and the crucifixion was not as personal a thing as it is to me at this time and so I would say to you that Christ did suffer more than you and I will ever know that he probably died of a ruptured heart but even that a dead Christ on the cross is meaningless and so we can look forward to Easter because he did not stay on that cross and so he arose again on the third day there could be no doubt about his death there can be no doubt about his resurrection so Christ did indeed suffer for you and I you

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