# Rules for IUPAC Nomenclature of Functional Group-Basic Principle and Techniques in Organic Chemistry

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Hello Friends now we are going to discuss about the rules for the IUPAC Nomenclature for the organic compounds having the function group so in the previous section we have studied about the roots of the IUPAC Nomenclature for the organic compounds and just like for alknes. now we are going to study about the IUPAC Nomenclature for the one having it function group. so what are the different right is that we have to keep in concern and then only we could able to give a particular nomination according to the IUPAC so let us understand that. so there are certain rules on which we could follow and for which we could be able to write the Nomenclature of a preTICAL GROUP or getting some part which consists of a functional group so talking about the first rule and there are various rules but I have just handed me arranged in the manner so that if we could study the point-wise and I’m talking about the first one that is the functional groups in the molecule is the first identified and accordingly appropriate suffix is been used so this indicates that suppose if an organic compound consists of suppose if we could say that an organic compound which consists of a function and suppose that for sure groups is only the one social that is been attached to the organic component for example let me give you that is so this ch3 ch3 is basically known as ethane so this is the one which don’t have it that functional group that we have concerned with suppose what if we have that is ch3 ch2 see it so now this is ch3 ch2 C and where CL is BC the functional group so now this whole organic compound is basically known because of the CL or a halogen atom that is been attached to the a hydrocarbon so therefore the identification of this would be an alkyl halide so that’s what this functional group plays a very vital role in making or in classifying the organic compound so that is what we have to know is the first point that is the functional group is the in the molecule is first identified and accordingly appropriate suffix is been used so therefore in this case we could say that this would be known as ethyl chloride or we could call it as chloro ethane so now therefore the word plural suppose if I have a right over here s so in this case the chloro is the one which is in the prefix when the ethan is the one which is in the suffix so that is the reason that according input that we have used the suffix and we have considered that how many number of carbon atoms are over there and this is what we have taken remains of them so now talking about the next one that is the second rule is that the longest continuous chain of the carbon atoms having the functional group is been selected so suppose if we have a hydrocarbon and in which any of the function boobies been attached and so we have to choose that gene which consists of the function for example suppose this is an example that we have and for which we have precise elongation and as you know that it is the rule of the IBC normal cases that we have to say the longest chain which consists of carbon atoms so if I select the the one which has the more number of carbon atoms like this one that is one two three four and five so obviously this consists of this long history in this set of five carbon atoms but talking about the function group because it consists of a functional group and that functional group is basically C mu H so we have to select the function move in such a manner that it should be included in the longest chain that we are selecting so that is the reason that we will select the longest chain not as this one as we could prefer in in terms of an L K that is one two three four and five but since the functional group is been present so therefore we will select the elongation in such a manner that it should also consist of the functional group so therefore this one would be the longest XI we should have included these for sure and now let us understand that what is the next point that it is been mentioned over here and that is basically the longest carbon chain is numbered from that and which is nearest to the functional group so in the previous example as it is so suppose if this was an example that we have to power in the for the last point and in this case we have got to know that we have to number in such a manner that it should have it should start with that and where we could receive less number or less number to the function suppose in this case the function group is basically in the see oh oh a ch2 group or we could call it is conversation group and so therefore the numbering will start from that and where we could find the functional group nearer to the know machine in this case we can’t start the number from this carbon because if this is the first term this will be the second third fourth and then this from the fifth carbon so that is a reason this number should not be here from this end while the number should start from this end so therefore this is the falsehood that we have got to know and that’s the reason that we’ll name it is because it is especially ladies of carboxylic acid so suppose if for any group it would have been over there like that of n halide so therefore the with the first stuff so therefore this is a I could call it and say first card over here 1 2 3 4 & 5 so this is what the third rule says that is the longest carbon chain is numbered from that and which is nearer to the functional group so that is what we have did and now talking about the next one that is using the appropriate number of the functional group the complete name is being written so therefore so that number is been the appropriate number has been mentioned over here in this case and by using this thing we could be able to write the complete name of this organic compound so talking about this thing and since the substance are also being attached on the second carbon item as you could see and there are both the substrate and I at substrates the groups are basically the ch3 groups so that for the name of this would be 2 comma 2 dimethyl and the one which consists of the the total number of carbon in this is basically the fire five carbons have been attached to my steel chain and it’s including a CH group or a fashion group so therefore the name of this would be Penn toy Kesem so so therefore we could call it s 2 comma 2 that is pentanoic acid so that is the name of this is what we could keep and so this is an example so let us talk about the next one that we have that is this one so talking about the fifth point and the fifth point says that the function group that is f then is fluro chloro bromo iro no.2 or this is alkyne AR aromatic that is it could be a benzene also are always being written in the prefix sub student so therefore that’s the reason if suppose if we have to connect something like this one if I would say suppose they say an organic component for which suppose if we have followed the first rules first few rules that we have written over in this lecture so in this case we have got to know that this is the one which has a functional group not of any kind of methyl group purtiest of the bromine so the here we have identified the functional group and the next thing that we have to do is yes we have presided the longest chain which has stopped this function so it is a straight line so there is no reason to find an alternate option so therefore this one would be missing the straight chain and talking about the next thing that we have to say this long is chain and you have to number it so the numbering will start from this carbon because this is the functional group that doesn’t consist of any carbon atom over here so that is the reason that this one will be the first turbine and starting with this way to edit it will till the last so therefore this is the first second and third carbonate and according to that we couldn’t give the name of it so in this case the first group is blooming or blooming at up so then for the beam of this would be because the bromo is attached to the first carbon at up so therefore the name of this would be when roaming that we could write it in this way that is one group and the total number of carbon in this case or in this organic compound is basically three and in this region also so therefore we could call it as propane so therefore the name of this is one bromo propane so if you notice that the function group that is proving it is been attached and we have studied the that is the fifth one over here and which says that the functional group like fluro chloro bromo hydro no.2 or so this should always be preferred in the prefix substituent as a prefix substance so that is the reason that promotion be always in the prefix so that is what we have seen over here that is it could be named it has one bromo grouping so this was an example that i have discussed and let us move the next one and the next point is suppose in case of poly functional compounds one of the functional component functional group is chosen as the principal function and the compound is named on that basis so this is what I want to explain so most if poly functional groups are be present means more than two functional groups are been present in the same organic compound so which one should be select and based on that we became a particular name to the organic compound so for example so this is what we are going to discuss about also but just for an example suppose if I would say that is suppose in this case that is I’ll take another example that is CH 3 CH C and here it is also suppose H and here it is ch2 suppose like beer so therefore here it is if only for sugar pass will be present over here that is a bromine and glue or Rome or glue this 12 groups have been missing so that is the reason we should consider that name which would which should comment last or we should prefer the name in such a way that we could be able to write the name of the organic compound so that is what this point is mentioning about that is the point number 6 and now let us move to the next point was in the next point let’s see what it from which we could get to move and the next is that is the remaining functional groups are named as the substituent using the appropriate prefix so for example that the same example I because it over here that is this one this is the example where we have mentioned it over here and there are two fuel that is the pleura prevent the promo group so we have to set the longest chain first and we have identify which are which are the function over here so therefore broom and glue this two are the function groups that we have we are observing over here so we have to select the knowledge into it that should be included with that of the functional group so therefore this is the location that we have and the next thing that we have to do is we have to number it so we have to number it in such a way that the that is the substituent or the function rule should get the less number so therefore if we number it from here that this would be carbon number one this would be carbon number two and this one would be the carbon number three but talking about this was in the pro who is attached on the carbon atom here and that’s the reason that the numbering should be given from this and only so there’s reason we couldn’t name the number as one two and three so this is the number that we have given over here and yes now the most challenging yes we have percent which one should be in the prefix one so if you compare to that of an alphabetical order also so in this case we have got to know that the bromine is suffering which is which will come first and after that of chlorine so we could write the name in this manner also that is a 2-chloro 1-bromo or we could write it in this way that is a1 remove to blue and the total number of carbon in this straight chain is missing 3 making this to be polish probing so this is what we have made and that’s the reason that we have gone through the point number six and point number seven and this is what we have got to know so that it’s fitting and we have made the rest of the functional group s and prefix so that is what we have mentioned over here and let us start with the another one that is point number eight so in this case of what we are studying is the following priorities are being chosen as the principal functional group for the base linked and so in the previous one that we have studied the both the functional groups they belong into the halogen but they can be different also so that is what we are concerning in the eighth point and suppose the first group consists of four among this any two function value consider or any two foucha groups have been attached to the organic compound so what will be the preference so talking about the first one that is the carboxylic acid group that is C o H this should be preferred first and then it will be followed to an ester group and then it will be followed by that is an amide group and then we should follow that is sign ID of sino group then aldehyde and then keto then hydroxyl it could be of you know also it could be of an alcohol O’s so after which and this will be an colic and or we could call it as phenolic and then it will be for NH 2 that is for amino group and then it is 4 that is alkene and then it will be for an alkyne so this are the priorities that we have made over here and this priority is the thing that we should follow and that would be very much helpful to give a nomination for a particular giving component for structure that we have and this was the eighth point and regarding that let us understand the next products woman and which see is that if two functional groups of the same type are being present then they are indicated by using night prior etc before the class name whether the class name suffix so that is the thing that we have did earlier also and suppose I’ve given an example of this one that is there are few pushes that we are going to do a normal teacher on that also but let me make you understand the ninth point so in this case basically suppose if we have like this one that is CH 2 CH 2 and here it is CLC so this is an organ upon that we have and in this case we have to do that is we have to identify the function group over here and that is CL but the next thing is we have to number it also yes we have to number the tower Cheney in such a manner that the lowest number should be received to that of the functional group so therefore there is no chance to we get confusion over here so therefore we could write or we could number the any carbon from this end or that end because they are symmetrical also as well as from both the end they will listen the same smallest number so therefore I mean even in this s carbon number one and this is carbon number two so this case the function group that I have been attached to this organic structure is having the same person that is the chloro group so therefore we could write it in this way we have the position of the floor also we mention over here so therefore the position is on the first carbon as well as on the second carbon so making this to be born s 1 comma 2 because two times the same for sugar peas in minute n so therefore I could write it as 1 comma 2 dichloro and the one which consists of the longest chain is BC the two carbon atoms that always in the loggia Xin so therefore I could be put as ithi so therefore this is the name of the evolving so for that I am moving and we have followed the ninth of Roger so based on this thing only P should the main thing that we will observe is that during the name the prefix 1 is the one which will have the functional group and that are mostly when that of the suffix will consist of the main that is the main name of the organic component so there are few examples that we are going to devote and let us see that how can we nominate play give me the name to those organic compounds so starting with the first one that is so this is the one that we have and you have to give a nomination and that also to be based on IUPAC nomination so this is the one that we have and what is we have to do is we have to follow the hypixel in which the first is you have to select or you have to choose which one of is basically the solution rule so in this case that is this Oyster Bar this hydroxyl group is the function so that is what we have selected over here and the next thing that we have to do is we have to select the elongation that consists of the functional group and that long chain should consist of carbon atoms so therefore we could say that if we have choose this to be the log issue that is 1 2 3 4 then this will be the longest chain including the quench group or the functional group is already or is deadly being attached to this longest Xin so therefore you could write it over in this film so as you can see suppose if this is the longest in there then this which is been done here – – as a branch also but it has been attached to this long shape so therefore this for the location that consists of the function that is which so now this is been done so the next thing that we have to do is we have to do the numbering so therefore the numbering will start from that and where people get that the first group that is very close to that in while numbering so therefore if we know by it from you so therefore this one will be the first carbon second third and fourth but what if we number from this end that is if this is carbon number one this is carbon number two this is carbon number three and the function group is would be attached on carbon number three so therefore that would won’t be an appropriate one or two so as to follow the IBC rule so then it’s the reason that will follow from this aim so therefore this one with the first carbon atom this one the second this is third and this is full so now this ho H group is the one which is been acting as a functional group and meanwhile is assumption that we could see and that sub seven is basically and on the second carbon atom so that’s what we could coordinate as that is an overall the identification of this organic compound is based on alcohol because this whole thing is an alkyl group that has been attached to H so therefore if an H is been attached to an elk at the overall organic upon is ought to be an alcohol so therefore in this case the substrate has been acted by a ch3 so therefore we put named the CCS that is 2v time and then total number of carbon that has been present in the straight chain is food but talking about the function with the function hoop is attached on the carpet number two so therefore the name of this would be because it consists of four thousand herbs then the name of this will be butane but this is not building this is a butane as well as an alcohol so therefore the name of this would be to midnight Beauty to this to is for the position of the function that is been attached and that function room is basically the Oh H group so that is for this to represent the position of the H group that is being attached on the straight chain and that is the reason that the name of this is butane to all so this is the ibis anymore the first one that we have did that is 2-methylbutane to or this is the functional group where we have mentioned over here so now note the next one that is the second one which we will follow the eyepiece rule and we’ll name it so this is the structure that we have and for which we have to give the IPC normalization so the thing that we have to do is we have to identify because it consists of social group so therefore we have to identify which are the phonebook that have been attached in this case so the first function root that I could see is basically a ketone group and the next stage we see the carpus we go so this R will circuit and this is the longest scene that we could get but that is not a challenging thing the most challenging thing is we have to prefer which of the function yes that is the main point and after that we could give the numbering and then we’ll give the name for this one so talking about the the cervix to guess it and if we have got to know that is when the both the for suga-kun present or and the both are in different function then the carboxylic acid is the one that people see here is as the key to my group and when that of the campus a group is the one which is at the first so therefore we should give the priority as a function as a principal functional group to the that is carboxylic acid that is been present over here so therefore there’s a cooperation between this car Pacific si as it as this keto group so that is the reason the priority has bent to the carboxylic acid and that one would be the principal function group so therefore this would be the one that we start from here we will start at the numbering and that’s the reason that the numbering will start from here as the number one carbon number two three four and five so now this is the numbering that we have did and the next thing that we have to do is yes we have to be City named it so how can we name it because it consists of we see five carbon atoms and it is mainly because of the principal function coupe that is because of the CE OS for the CalPERS we group that is pin attached so therefore the ream of this would be pentanoic acid but if we could see that on the fourth which in the fuscia base pin attached and that would be written in the prefix so therefore in this case we will see that C double bond o is also known as also the functional group is also known as also so therefore you could write it as that is for all so that is methane ethane propane butane pentane and the name of this will be four also and then I can say so this is the name that we have given to this this organic apart and we have also followed the rule of bender the two for Shalimar will present and the Poussin should have been different so we should prefer which of the one that is the priority one and now let us move on to the next one that we have and the next one is so this one is the next one that we have and we have to give the IUPAC nomenclature to this one and the first shoe that we know commonly is we have to sense the longest chain that consists of the carbon atom so that is the thing that we will choose the longest chain that consists of carbon atom along with that of the function so here we have to identify which are which are the function that are attached to here so therefore the function group that has been attached so here is this a halogen group that is a guru and that of the another one that is an alkene so talking about this one then we have to give the numbering so let us understand that we have to set the elongation that concept of carbon atom so it is very easy to understand that the longest chain is basically this one only next the rule is we have to number it in such a way that the functional group should get the less number so that suppose if we number it from here so therefore this one will be the carbon number one two three four every right over here is 4 5 6 so this is the sequence that we get that is 4 comma 6 so what did we number it from this carbon atom so therefore this will be the first carbon atom better one for sugar Brisbane data attached so therefore this is the 1 2 3 4 5 6 so in this case basically you have we have two options so what if we suppose if we have numbered it is from this end so therefore this one with the first carbon atom and where if we could find in functional group second is again we have found official third fourth fifth and sixth so this is what we have given the number over here so you have two options right here that is one is 4 comma 6 and the 1 is 1 comma 2 so we have to sell it which one of the preferred one and that is basically we know it already and that is 1 comma 2 so that is the reason that the 1 comma 2 is the one which has a less numbering to given to the functional group and the reason we will prefer that end and that’s the reason that we would number it over here as 1 2 3 4 5 6 so this is what we have select anything number based on what we have did when we have identified the functional group over here but talking about the substituent in this case the CH y is acting like substituent that is when a text from the Third’s are random while we have given the numbering also and talking about the next thing that we have to name it but there are two first look that I mean then we could observe one in suppose happened double bond that is an alkene and one is in illusion that is in plural so therefore suppose if we have a mention over here that is if we see that is the numbering should be done from which end so the competition is between that is plural and that of the carbon-carbon double bond so so as to name it the numbering is middle but while naming it it would be preferred that the such an should be named first so therefore the third operator we could see II think that is minute s so therefore we could write it as 3 e type then in this case basically we could write it as the position of the carbon atom there the position of the floor item that is been attached over here and that is CL so therefore it is minute action on the first carbon atoms so therefore we could write it as 3 e-type one blue and the total number of carbon that is been present in this case is 6 but we could find that this is not in L came this is an alkene so therefore the name of this would be 3 1 glow hex but the second number of the second carbon consists of a kilometer before so therefore one chloro hex to e so this is the name of the above one that we have to present it over here and let us move on to the next one so this is the one that we have and it consists of BC the functions ok and those functional groups are basically an aldehyde group third to any ID group and when you look that is been attached to here so we have to assert the number is such a way that wherever you could get the number to the mission with various so suppose if we have given the numbering from this n so therefore this is the first element of that if we could get and in the first elaborate M we get a for Shalu talking about this one this is the second third full again we are getting a from sugar one editor of the full seventh and fifth and then again on the sixth so therefore the sequence that we have got is 1 comma 4 comma 6 and talking about what if we have numbered from this end so this one the first carbon atom this one in second this is third fourth fifth and this one will be the sixth so therefore this is the first carbon tub that we could get over here so therefore this is the first one second this is third then fourth fifth and six so compared to 1 comma 4 comma 6 and 1 comma 3 comma 6 the one which is appropriate to give the number is 51 comma 3 comma 6 so that is the reason we will number it from this and that is 1 2 3 4 5 & 6 so you are basically two kind of functional groups have been present two kinds of an that as a and that is basically one is ending at a group and one is an quality group as you can see over here and for which we have given a sequence also that is this one should the preferred one while giving the principal function group while after that if the group is that should be given the usually in the priority after that so therefore those will be second on the third carbonate and that’s the reason that it would be written as a prefix when the suffix one will be having the one which has the principal name and that is because of the aldehyde as you see so therefore the name of this one movie this OS generated against hydroxy so the five who write it as three hydroxy and the total number of clapping this is six but I could find that then it’s 90 had a group peaceful person and as he had it that ends with Al and the reason that the total number of carbon here is six making this to be polarized hang signal but it doesn’t consist of only one earlier a group it consists of two le ad group and the reason the name of this will be three hydroxy hexane that is one comma six die so this is the name of the structure that we have so this is what we have explained about the IPC normal nature of the one which consists of the functional group and that’s it a given if you except for the way and I hope that you will try it more and more nomenclature for different kind of organic um words containing different functional group so thank you for watching this video I hope you have understood this video very clearly and would share this with your friends and yes don’t forget to subscribe et al thank you

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