Research Methodology (Part 1 of 3): 5 Steps, 4 Types and 7 Ethics in Research



Here! We would be talking about the basic idea behind
research methodology. The basic steps for a scientific research
the types of Descriptive research are a relationship between cause and effect and ethics. Used for any research. Now, to start with how can we identify whether
a research is scientific or not it’s very very interesting topic. Say, I am there at an airport or a railway
station and I see people with 2 different outlooks. one who has a kind of very executive and formal
outlook and another person with long hair might be I have a pre mindset that this person
might smoke and this is a kind of executive person because he is in a formal dress but
is that a reality I would definitely say, no. A scientific research is only true if you
have certain foundations on which you can proof that what you are stating is correct. That is just my preconceived notion that since
this person is having long hairs, might be this person smokes. So, the idea behind any scientifically research
is finding the basic ethics. And the basic foundation is stone and once
I can prove that this research or this basis on which I am saying that persons with long
hair smoke is true then only I can proof that this is a research which is scientific in
nature. So, there are various steps that are involved
under a scientific research. So, if I say steps that are involved in a
scientific research, I would say there are 5 steps that I could classify. Now, I have a scene here. Where there are group of children who are
sitting and watching television but on television, they are seeing like scenes which are violent
in nature. Now, based on this what would be the steps
in my scientific research. 1stis perceive question. So, my first instant question would be what
is happening around. So, what is happening is a kind of question
that is being asked here. Now, I try to formulate the hypothesis. What is hypothesis? Hypothesis is a kind of tentative solution
to a problem. So, what is the problem here that the children
who are watching violent scenes on television might become aggressive? So, I formulate the hypothesis that children
who watch violent programmes on television, becomes aggressive in nature. So, that is what is I have as my hypothesis. Now, that is what I believe should be a tentative
solution to a problem. In reality, can be true, in reality, it cannot
be true. So, what I have to do is, I will have to test
this hypothesis that I have formulated. To test the hypothesis and divide the group
in to 2. I show one set of children the violent shows
on television and other set of television kind of non-violent shows on the television. So, I have 2 sets of people here one who are
seeing violent scenes of the television, other who are seeing non-violent scenes on the television
and then I try to find out the behaviour of the two groups a and b. and say whether the
behaviour of children in group a is more aggressive then behaviour of children in group b. So, that is where I test hypothesis but, when
I formulate hypothesis. There is a kind of phenomena which is known
as conformation biasness. Conformation biasness means I have a pre assume
tendency to notice things on which I agree upon. So, for example I say I have a preconceive
notion that people with long hair smoke. Then I would ignore all long haired people,
who are not smoking. So, that is what a kind of confirmation biasness
is and this conformation biasness affects your formulation of hypothesis. So, I have a preconceive notion that people
with long hair smoke. But, I will ignore all those people with long
hair who are not smoking so that is what the conformation biasness is and this conformation
biasness affects your formulation of the hypothesis. So, we talked about perceiving the question
then formulating the hypothesis that is a tentative solution to the problem that is
given. Then try to test the hypothesis. Finally, I draw conclusions and that is what
the goal of prediction is. So, I here try to predict in the second step
that children turn to be aggressive if they see violent shows on television and what I
am trying to do in the conclusion is and trying to predict the goals. So that I’m trying to do is, I’m trying
to either approve the hypothesis or this approves the hypothesis. So, if I approve or support the hypothesis. I would say that yes, all the children who
are aggressive in nature is because of the reason that they are watching violent shows
on television. If I disapprove the hypothesis, I would say
no this not the reason that the children turn to be violent and then finally I report my
research. That is very important because if I have done
some research and if I don’t report it, it would be very difficult to replicate that
research. So, report helps to replicate that research. So, if I have done this research on this topic
and there is some another person who tries or who wants to do similar research on another
topic. He can do that only if we try to, if I have
replicated this research, I have reported this result, if I have not reported this result
there is another person who won’t be able to replicate the research. So, reporting of the result is very important. Now, this can be done only if I have unscientific
problem. Now, how should I demarcate whether a problem
is scientific in nature, or non-scientific in nature. So, understanding whether a problem is scientific
or empirical or it is not scientific or not empirical is an important question in research
methodology. How, can we do that? I have 2 questions here. 1st question says where does life exist or
I could say, do life exist on Mars. Do lives exist on mars or moon or anything. Same here, okay. So, that’s my first question. The second Question is what is life? So, the first question I’m asking does life
exist on moon? Now, this question can be answer based on
scientific findings. So, I can bring in soil samples, I can bring
in results from the satellites that I have gone there or imageries that we have captured
for that region. Soil samples, sample of the region or the
mineral content of that region availability of water and other parameters. So, this can be done by scientific understanding
or it could be called as empirical finding. However, if I say what is life? There can be lots and lots of people who can
have lots and lots of views about what is life? If the question cannot be answered with proper
justification, I would say it lies in the ambit of philosophy or religion in this case. And therefore, it’s away from the field
of psychology. So, I would say that psychology is a science
by nature not arts per say, per say because most of the researches I would say in psychology. Deal with understanding human behaviour and
therefore it is much more scientific nature. Now, I have these 5 steps that I have mentioned
here to understand in 5 steps. I could apply various methods and these 4
methods that I could apply are known as descriptive methods. Now, what do we understand by descriptive
method. So, descriptive methods are those methods
which could be explained. In I could say detail. Here we have the four methods that we’ll
talk about naturalistic observation, laboratory observation, case study and surveys. Now, to start with naturalistic observation
means supposedly I want to understand the feeling of the villager when, he is in a farm. So, I would go to the farm and see the villager
doing various activities and observe them. That is what is naturalistic observation. So, what I’m trying to do is, I’m trying
to observe the villager of the farmer in his natural settings but here there is a main
problem of observer biasness. If the farmer knows that I am a person who
is doing research on him and I am constantly seeing him in the field. His activities might get distorted and that
is what is known as observer biasness because of the presences of an observer there, his
results are bias I am not exactly what they should be. So, that is a main problem of naturalistic
observation. There are some of the remedies that have been
used to avoid this observer Biasness. First is using one-way mirror. So, one-way mirror means the observer can
see the participants but the participants cannot see the observer. So, it’s a kind of one-way mirror. I could see the participants what they are
doing, but the participants won’t be able to see the observer. So, that is one method. Second is participant observation. So, what I do is rather than bringing it to
the information of the farmer that I am an observer or I am a researcher doing a research
on him I would become another farmer and go down in the field with the same farmer and
then try to observe what he is doing. So, that is what is known as participant observation. I become a part and parcel of the person and
then try to observe what he is trying to do the next is use blind observers. Blind observers mean that even I am not aware
why I am there. Okay. I’m in the farm even I don’t know why
I am there in the farm. After I see the farm and come back and told
that I was there because I wanted to do the research or see the behaviour of a farmer
in the farm settings. So, that is what is a blind observer. That means observer himself does not know
what does his role, when he is going to the field. So, these are some of them. This is some of the major problem that naturalistic
observation face and these are some of the remedies that are done order to improve the
problems of naturalistic observation. The second is laboratory observation. Laboratory observation means if there is a
toddler. Who is trying to see himself in the mirror
and see his activities, what he is trying to do and why mirror is showing exactly the
same things. Why he is doing? So, that is a kind of inquisitiveness that
is going around in the mind of the infant and that could be very well understood in
laboratory settings because in the laboratory settings I can have a mirror and a child there
and I can see the activities and observe the findings but the main problem again is since
the person is in the laboratory settings. His observations might get his responses might
get diverted or biased because he knows that he is under observation. However, these 2 methods are very well used
to formulate hypothesis. So, to formulate hypothesis observation in
both naturalistic and laboratory observations are used. The next is the next 2 methods are case studies
and surveys. Now, case studies are the one of the most
famous method that Sigmund Freud used for his studies of psychoanalysis. Rather than studies too many people at a time
case studies focus on understanding all the detailed characteristic of a single person. So, of 1 person whom I am studying I would
try to get ‘N’ number of characteristics that I could and do all detailed analysis
from kind of his genetic makeup his historical background his medical background and so on. So, I would try to include all kind of behaviours
under a certain phenomena for a single person and that is known as case study. One of the interesting case studies that was
done on Phineas Gage. And this is considered a very interesting
study. The reason being this person met an accident
and after the accident there was a rod that crossed his upper portion of the left side
of the mouth and it went through his right side of the skull. And that was a metal rod and despite of that,
that person survived after the surgery this person survived but the response that this
person gave after he met an accident was very different and that is a kind of very unique
case study I would say and you cannot kind of duplicate such case studies. So, case studies can be very unique by the
nature they are specifically used for personality disorders like dissociative disorders so each
person gets a very unique case study or has a very unique case study that you would study
so that is case study. In the next surveys. Surveys are usually used in the areas where
you can not intrude the privacy of a person. So, if there are some kind of personal issues
I would say that are happening around in the family. What could be done is you cannot solve those
by observation a person might not be ready to give answers in case study but in case
of surveys if similar if questions asked about similar personal issues are discussed with
them in form of interviews, questionnaires. Okay? Or any other similar forms what they would
do they would be kind of more happy answer those questions rather than if they are being
observed or they are being judged individually for the case study. So, survey provides a broad ambit for the
research there is another benefit of survey that you can apply it on huge number of population. Case study if you are dealing with one by
one person. How many persons would you be able to cover
in a day but surveys you can do kind of provide questionnaire to all the 100 people sitting
in the chamber and all of the 100 people can answer those at a single go, so you can apply
surveys on huge number of population another benefit of survey is you randomly select people
so random selection is again important its early because if I say if I want to observe
students from grade 1 to 5 rather than assessing all the hundred of each class I can go for
20 students from each class and that would be a kind of sample survey or I have done
random selection for this survey. So that is one of the benefit that survey
technique has. Now we have talked about survey case studies,
laboratory observations and naturalistic observations. All this imply descriptive statistics. However it’s important to note that rather
than doing a research which is descriptive in nature what we are trying to find is relationship. Relationship by means of cause in effect so
if I can say the weather is dark today it might rain or there are black clouds or dark
clouds it might rain so that is something I am trying to do a cause effect relationship
the cause is the clouds here and because of the effect would be rain. So such relationships could be understood
either by experimentations or by co-relation. Now we would be covering co-relation in detail
under the section on statistics again here we are just breathily introducing this concept
and experiment again we will be covering in detail we would be breathily touching these
two topics here now co-relation means the relationship between element x and y so I
would say if I pantograph you have element x and y the relationship between that element
can be given by co-relation and co-relation is usually soon by means of scatter diagram
so all the values or all the people whom I am experimenting on if I try to individually
mark the location of them I would get graph with different types usually the value of
co-relation varies from minus one, zero and plus one. Plus one means positively co-related so if
one parameter increase the other parameter would also increase. So this is a case of perfect positive co-relation. So x is increasing by one step and similarly
y is increasing in the same fashion. So that is the perfect positive co-relation
However case of minus one would be a perfect negative co-relation so x is increasing by
a fixed amount and y would decrease by a fixed amount. So that is what is a perfect negative co-relation
if all the values are randomly distributed it would be no co-relation or zero co-relation
if they are nearby, I would say the valueless between zero to one and it is modestly co-related. So that is one way of finding the relationship
and that is what is known as co-relational statistic of co-relation. The next important method is experimentation. So, whenever I say I am using steps in scientific
methods what I am trying to do is experiment under experiment I would take two set of groups
one of the control group and other is the experimental group. Now whatever group I take I would have certain
set of variables. Variables are those units which would very
and this could be again classified into three types that is independent variable, dependent
variable and confounding variable Independent variables are the cause of the
problem so they are independent but this cause is affecting to the outcome so that is the
dependent variable and that can be interviewing variables are mediating variables that could
be also known as compounding variables and they are other factors that affect both cause
of effect. So if I have a data if I put the data into
the variable I would get some result on the experiment so let’s check again the same
example black clouds leak to rain so here black clouds would be the cause on the independent
variable and they are leading to rain that’s the effect on dependent variable so this rain
is dependent on the type of the cloud so if the cloud is black then it would rain if the
cloud is not black it would not rain so that is one example. The next example we again take that we are
discussing throughout the lecture so aggressive violent videos lead to aggregation in children
now violent video is the kind of independent variable and what is that affecting that is
affecting the level of aggression or i could say the presence or the absence of the aggression
in a child so aggression would be the outcome and this outcome is being affect by the nature
of the video that the person is watching can be violent or non violent so that would be
the cause and the aggression would be the effect of this cause
Now if I say however there can be case that the five children that I am taking let’s
say two of them this and this belong to a family that is aggressive and the other three
children belong to a family that is non aggressive in this case what would happen? The family background would become a confounding
variable so family background is confounding variable it’s an intervening variable it’s
not an exact variable which is affecting the amount of aggression in a child. However, I could say the children who belong
to a family background which is aggressive might turn into more aggressive generation
so that’s the kind of intervening or mediating variable and that affects the outcome so you
have confounding variable that’s the family background here
So these are the three types of variable that you can refer however to understand that as
I explain there could be control group and experimental group so if I say music affects
the score in a test if there is a music in a surroundings and that is affecting the test
results of a person what would it be? I could say I can take two sets of people
one who are giving examination in absence of music and other who are giving examination
in presence of music and then I will check the difference in the result. So here what is happening is that is a control
group to home no music is being played and there is an experimental group to home music
is played and then I am comparing the result and that is what is happening under an experiment
However, to understand it better there can be two different effects one is the placebo
effect other is the experimental placebo effect is the effect that I have a plumbly that if
I go to doctor x, y, z whatever treatment he gives me I get well
Now based on that I have a kind of minor headache and I go to doctor x, y, z and he gives me
a placebo. Placebo is a kind of drug I would say which
has no composition it’s a kind of normal sugar powder that put in the capsule and the
doctor gives me the sugar powder and says you take this capsule and you will be alright
The next day I come to doctor and I say I am alright that means I am not well because
there was some meditation given but because of the placebo effect that is taking place
similar to placebo effect there is another effect which is known as experimental research
under experimental effect what happens is candidate tries to perform better because
there is presence of the experimental so for example if I am doing a research on a say
a group of people or sit a students were suffering from Alzheimer’s so I have a set of candidates
who are suffering from alzymers and I am giving them the second drug dose and I have a strong
believe that after this drug of dose they should be significant improvement in the result
so however the candidate is has to do a lot of effort in order to give me good result
he will be maybe to do that effort they can give me good result and that’s because of
the experimental effect if the experimental is not the experimental did not have a kind
of a exceptions that he would give me good results might be that result would have not
come out So there can be two types of effects that
affect any experiment one is the placebo effect and other is the experimental effect. Again when you are doing the research or experiment
there can be two types of experiment one is single blind experiment and other is double
blind experiment single blind experiment is an experiment in which the participant is
un aware about the treatment been given so or the experiment been conducted. So I have a participant here who does not
know anything and he is under an experiment Double blind experiments are those experiments
in which neither the participant know nor the experimental know what is going around
there is a third person who is putting all the settings and both the participants and
the experimental are totally unaware and that is the mainly because of the reason to avoid
by is the result so rather then there is in case there is no placebo and no experimental
effect to avoid those effects what is happening here is there is a double blind experiment
that has been set up. Now we have talked about the various steps
in the various types or methods in the experiment the most important topic that we would be
discussing now is the ethics now there are certain ethics or rules I would say that are
used research methodology. The first ethic says that people 1st, research
2nd, that means the 1st priority is given to people and not research. So, all the candidates who are under research
settings would be given the best priority. Participants are allowed to make informed
discussion or they are perorally informed the experiment being conducted. The 3rd case would be debriefing. Debriefing means you are teaching something
and then you are taking a test at the end of that lecture and you are not informing
that you would be taking the test at the end of the lecture. However, towards the end you tell them that
you are taking the test. So, that is the kind of debriefing. You not informed the person prior but once
everything is done you try to say you explain the person that we explained you the lecture
and based on this lecture we are taking your test. The 4th is participants should be allowed
to withdraw at any time so you cannot force a participant for any research if the participant
wants to withdraw in the middle of the research he should be allowed to withdraw. The next is similar to debriefing that is
done to the participants, there should be debriefing of the invigilators as well. So, invigilators should also be debriefed
Similar to the participants. The next is while undergoing any kind of research
or experiment that the participant is doing. If he comes out with some undesirable consequences
some kind of results which he was not expecting he or she must not expecting in case of such
undesirable consequences is the duty of the examiner or the person who is taking the result,
doing the research or the experimenter to detect the problem to remove the problem and
make the participants comfortable. So, comfort of the participant is the primary
goal and that is one of the major ethics that is involved in research methodology and all
the research or all the data that has been collected during the research must be kept
confidential. That’s another important ethical guideline
in the research. So, these were some of the basic ideas that
we have discussed under research methodology. We’ll be covering more topics on research
methodology in subsequent classes. You can subscribe to our channel for any further
updates and leave any doubts comments below the video. We’ll be more than happy to answer those
have a good day!

43 thoughts on “Research Methodology (Part 1 of 3): 5 Steps, 4 Types and 7 Ethics in Research

  1. A good evening mam, really excellent mam because exam point of view very useful to us, Thank you mam.

  2. madam namasthe your teaching is very effective and efficient we are taking good advantage from this mam can you tell me how can I get NET exam certificate

  3. Thank you so much Ma'am… Your videos help a lot. Just that I am getting them a day before ugc-net exam. Hope, I make it

  4. Thank you so much Ma'am for such a beautiful demonstration..I have been following your lectures for many days.. you demonstrate any topic in a very simple manner ..I have been enriched by your lectures..I request you Ma'am kindly to deliver some lecture on GIS & Remote Sensing…

  5. Dear Ma`am, I really appreciate your teaching style and the quality of content you deliver in your lectures. Thank you for all the video lectures you uploaded.
    I request you to kindly make video on the topic of Perception from Unit 5 from NTA UGC NET Psychology Syllabus (Code 04).
    Thank you in advance.

  6. Mam I'm very thankful to you because I'm cleared NET JRF In Kannada. And your teaching helps me for 1st paper. So thank you so much for your help… I'm Manjunath At Kannada University Hampi..

  7. Respected madam,

    I listened your first lecture on research methods, it is noteworthy that it is informative and well discussed. what I want to know is that I am a student of linguistics and whether subsequent lectures are helpful to me or rather they are solely designed for pure sciences?Please, clearify so I may save my time.
    Please
    Let me know some book with name of author that I may consult along with your lectures.

    Thank you

  8. Thank you so much for all the videos and the matter. It helped me to score good marks in paper 1 and clear the net exam dec 2018. Thank you Ms Manishika Jain for putting in so much efforts in the videos and explaining all the complicated matter. Without the videos and the examrace copies I wouldn’t have been able to clear the exam. Thank you so much

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