PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode October 5, 2019


>>Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION FOR SATURDAY, OCTOBER 5: THE LATEST ON THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY; IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT, HONG KONG PROTESTS AND THE FATE OF U.S./CHINA RELATIONS; AND THE TOURISM EFFECT OF “GAME OF THRONES.” NEXT ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,HARI SREENIVASAN.>>Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING, AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. THE STATE DEPARTMENT MISSED A CONGRESSIONAL DEADLINE YESTERDAY TO SEND DOCUMENTS RELATED TO THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY. SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO, WHO WAS MEETING WITH GREEK OFFICIALS IN ATHENS TODAY, SAID THE STATE DEPARTMENT SENT A LETTER TO CONGRESS LAST NIGHT AND WOULD “DO ALL THE THINGS WE ARE REQUIRED BY LAW.” ON HIS WAY TO HIS VIRGINIA GOLF COURSE THIS MORNING, THE PRESIDENT TWEETED ANGRY REMARKS ABOUT DEMOCRATS, THE PRESS AND REPUBLICAN SENATOR MITT ROMNEY, WHO CRITICIZED THE PRESIDENT ON TWITTER YESTERDAY. IN ADDITION TO THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE DEMOCRAT-LED HOUSE COMMITTEES HAVE ALSO ISSUED SUBPOENAS TO THE WHITE HOUSE AND THE PRESIDENT’S PERSONAL ATTORNEY, RUDY GIULIANI, AMONG OTHERS. THE INQUIRIES SEEK DOCUMENTS RELATED TO THE PRESIDENT’S JULY 25 CALL WITH UKRAINE’S PRESIDENT AND THE WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT. AND IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, THE “NEW YORK TIMES” REPORTS THAT A SECOND INTELLIGENCE OFFICIAL WHO HAS “MORE DIRECT INFORMATION” MAY FILE HIS OWN WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT. IN A SURPRISE ANNOUNCEMENT YESTERDAY EVENING, PRESIDENT TRUMP ISSUED A PROCLAMATION REQUIRING THAT IMMIGRANTS PROVE THEY WILL HAVE ADEQUATE HEALTH INSURANCE OR THE ABILITY TO PAY FOR MEDICAL COSTS BEFORE BEING GRANTED VISAS. THIS ORDER IS THE LATEST MOVE BY THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION TO CURB LEGAL IMMIGRATION INTO THE UNITED STATES. THE PROCLAMATION STATES THAT “LAWFUL IMMIGRANTS ARE ABOUT THREE TIMES MORE LIKELY THAN UNITED STATES CITIZENS TO LACK HEALTH INSURANCE” AND ALSO SAYS THAT “IMMIGRANTS WHO ENTER THIS COUNTRY SHOULD NOT FURTHER SADDLE OUR HEALTHCARE SYSTEM, AND SUBSEQUENTLY AMERICAN TAXPAYERS, WITH HIGHER COSTS.” THE NEW POLICY IS REPORTEDLY AIMED AT IMMIGRANTS JOINING THEIR FAMILIES IN THE U.S. AND WILL NOT AFFECT REFUGEES, ASYLUM SEEKERS OR STUDENTS. IT IS SET TAKE EFFECT ON NOVEMBER 3, BUT COURT CHALLENGES ARE EXPECTED. AT LEAST 14 DEMONSTRATORS WERE KILLED IN BAGHDAD TODAY IN CONTINUED ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS ACROSS IRAQ. THE RENEWED VIOLENCE BETWEEN POLICE AND PROTESTERS CAME AFTER THE GOVERNMENT LIFTED A TWO-DAY AROUND-THE-CLOCK CURFEW IN BAGHDAD. DEMONSTRATORS TOOK TO THE STREETS TUESDAY TO PROTEST GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION, A LACK OF JOBS, AND BASIC SERVICES. POLICE CRACKED DOWN HARSHLY. MORE THAN 70 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED IN THE PAST FIVE DAYS, WITH HUNDREDS MORE WOUNDED. A NORTH KOREAN OFFICIAL SAID THAT NUCLEAR TALKS WITH THE UNITED STATES “BROKE OFF” TODAY IN SWEDEN AFTER ONE DAY BECAUSE THEY DID NOT FULFILL EXPECTATIONS. THE NUCLEAR TALKS AT A CONFERENCE CENTER ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF STOCKHOLM WERE THE FIRST FORMAL WORKING-LEVEL MEETING SINCE PRESIDENT TRUMP AND NORTH KOREAN LEADER KIM JONG UN MET IN JUNE. LATE TODAY, A U.S. STATEMENT SAID NORTH KOREA’S COMMENTS “DID NOT REPRESENT THE CONTENT OR SPIRIT OF THE MORE THAN EIGHT HOURS OF TALKS.” THE STATEMENT SAID THE U.S. HAS ACCEPTED AN INVITATION FROM SWEDEN FOR MORE TALKS IN TWO WEEKS. NO WORD ON WHETHER NORTH KOREA WILL RETURN.>>Sreenivasan: LEGISLATORS IN HONG KONG FILED A LEGAL CHALLENGE TODAY TO STOP A NEW BAN ON WEARING FACE MASKS DURING ONGOING PROTESTS THERE. THE COLONIAL-ERA EMERGENCY LAW WENT INTO EFFECT AT MIDNIGHT LAST NIGHT, BUT IT DID NOT STOP DEMONSTRATORS FROM WEARING MASKS OR END THE VIOLENCE. IN A PRE-RECORDED SPEECH THAT AIRED TODAY, HONG KONG’S CHIEF EXECUTIVE, CARRIE LAM, DEFENDED THE FACE MASK BAN AS NECESSARY DURING WHAT SHE CALLED A TIME OF “UNPRECEDENTED VIOLENCE.” LAM HAS NOT RULED OUT FURTHER MEASURES TO STOP THE PROTESTS.>>Sreenivasan: TONIGHT, WE TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT WHAT IS DRIVING THE PROTESTS IN HONG KONG, AND WHY THE MILLIONS OF PROTESTORS WHO’VE FILLED THE STREETS FOR MORE THAN FOUR MONTHS SAY THE FUTURE OF THEIR CITY IS AT STAKE. IT’S THE LAST OF OUR TEN-PART SERIES, “CHINA: POWER AND PROSPERITY,” PRODUCED WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE PULITZER CENTER. NEWSHOUR FOREIGN AFFAIRS CORRESPONDENT NICK SCHIFRIN REPORTS FROM HONG KONG. (PROTESTING IN CHINESE)>>Reporter: IN THE SHADOW OF DOWNTOWN, HONG KONG TEENAGERS SPEND THEIR WEEKENDS DENOUNCING THEIR GOVERNMENT. (PROTESTING IN CHINESE) THESE STUDENTS SAY THEY USED TO BE APOLITICAL. BUT NOW THEY FEEL THEY HAVE TO FIGHT, TO SAVE WHAT MAKES THEIR CITY UNIQUE.>>Reporter: EVERY PROTESTER PLAYS A PART, AND 16-YEAR-OLD SHUM SHUM’S IS TO GIVE FREE HUGS. SHE WEARS A MASK THAT’S NOW BEEN BANNED BY THE GOVERNMENT, AND PROVIDES ONLY HER NICKNAME TO HIDE HER IDENTITY FROM HONG KONG AUTHORITIES SHE ACCUSES OF PERSECUTING PROTESTORS INSTEAD OF IMPROVING PEOPLE’S LIVES.>>Reporter: HONG KONG’S GENERATION Z WANTS FREEDOM FROM BEIJING SO MUCH, THEY WROTE THEIR OWN NATIONAL ANTHEM… ♪ ♪ ♪ …WITH ITS OWN MUSIC VIDEO THAT’S GONE VIRAL. “BREAK NOW THE DAWN, LIBERATE OUR HONG KONG,” THEY SING. “UNITED, WE SAY THIS IS TODAY’S REVOLUTION.”>>FREE HONG KONG!>>FREE HONG KONG!>>Reporter: THIS IS ONE OF HONG KONG’S MAIN THOROUGHFARES, AND PROTESTORS HAVE COMPLETELY TAKEN IT OVER. AND THEY USE UMBRELLAS NOT ONLY FOR THE SUN, BUT ALSO BECAUSE IT’S THE SYMBOL OF THE DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT HERE. AND THEY SAY THAT THE FREEDOMS THAT THIS CITY HAS ENJOYED ARE BEING ERODED. THEY STARTED PROTESTING SIX MONTHS AGO WITH A NARROW DEMAND: WITHDRAWAL OF A BILL THAT WOULD ALLOW FOR THE EXTRADITION OF CRIMINAL SUSPECTS TO MAINLAND CHINA, WHERE THEY SAY THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM IS NOT INDEPENDENT.>>Reporter: CHIEF ADMINISTRATOR CARRIE LAM EVENTUALLY WITHDREW THE BILL, BUT PROTESTORS EXPANDED THEIR DEMANDS TO INCLUDE HER RESIGNATION, THE FREEING OF ARRESTED PROTESTERS, AND WHAT MANY HERE CALL FREEDOM: THE ABILITY TO VOTE DIRECTLY FOR THEIR LEGISLATORS WITHOUT BEIJING’S INTERFERENCE. OTHERS DESCRIBE FREEDOM MORE BROADLY AND HAVE DEEPER GRIEVANCES. POLLSTERS SAY THE NUMBER OF HONG KONG RESIDENTS IDENTIFYING AS CHINESE IS AT ITS LOWEST LEVEL, EVER. SO, WHEN YOU GUYS THINK OF YOUR IDENTITY, DO YOU IDENTIFY YOURSELVES AS BOTH CHINESEANDFROM HONG KONG? OR JUST HONG KONG?>>JUST HONG KONG.>>JUST HONG KONG.>>Reporter: FOR CENTURIES, HONG KONGWASPART OF CHINA. BUT IN THE 1800s, FOREIGN POWERS ATTACKED, AND THE BRITISH FORCED CHINA TO LEASE THE CITY AS PART OF WHAT THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT CALLS THE CENTURY OF HUMILIATION. (MUSICAL FANFARE) IN 1997, THE BRITISH HANDED THE CITY OVER, AND, UNDER A DEAL KNOWN AS “ONE COUNTRY, TWO SYSTEMS,” COMMUNIST CHINA PROMISED HONG KONG COULD KEEP ITS BRITISH-WRITTEN LAWS AND INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY BUT HAD TO TURN OVER ITS DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY. BEIJING’S DEFENDERS SAY CHINA HAS LIVED UP TO ITS PROMISES AND PROTESTERS’ TALK OF REVOLUTION IS MISGUIDED.>>I THINK THEY’RE OVER-WORRIED, YOU KNOW. IN HONG KONG, THE RULE OF LAW, THE WELL-ENTRENCHED COMMON LAW SYSTEM UNDERLINES OUR FREEDOMS AND RIGHTS, YOU KNOW. THAT’S WHY THEY CAN HAVE PROTEST EVERY DAY.>>Reporter: REGINA IP IS A MEMBER OF THE CABINET THAT RUNS THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT. SHE SAYS “ONE COUNTRY, TWO SYSTEMS” IS DOING JUST FINE.>>AFTER MORE THAN 180 YEARS OF HONG KONG AS A CITY, WE HAVE A VERY STRONG AND UNIQUE CULTURE. THERE’S NOTHING WRONG WITH A BIG COUNTRY HAVING DIFFERENT REGIONAL CULTURES. IT’S THE SAME IN THE U.S., YOU KNOW. CALIFORNIANS ARE VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE… FROM THOSE WHO ARE FROM IOWA OR THE TEXANS, YOU KNOW?>>Reporter: BUT PROTESTORS ARGUE CHINA HAS NOT LIVED UP TO ITS COMMITMENTS AND IS ENCROACHING INTO EVERY ASPECT OF RESIDENTS’ LIVES. PROFESSOR SAMSON YUEN IS STUDYING THE PROTESTS WITH THE HELP OF STUDENT POLLSTERS.>>I THINK THIS IS A… A GRADUAL BUILD-UP OF PEOPLE’S DISCONTENT ABOUT HOW CHINA’S RULING HONG KONG, OR HOW THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT IS NOT REPRESENTING THE LOCAL POPULATION BUT MORE REPRESENTING BEIJING.>>Reporter: THAT SENTIMENT HAS TAKEN HOLD SINCE PRO-DEMOCRACY DEMONSTRATORS OCCUPIED HONG KONG STREETS FIVE YEARS AGO, DEMANDING UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE.>>NO REFORMS HAVE BEEN DONE. AND INSTEAD, THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF DISQUALIFICATION AND PROSECUTION. SO, PEOPLE HAVE BEEN ANGRY FOR A PERIOD OF TIME. IT’S A TIME BOMB, AND “ONE COUNTRY, TWO SYSTEMS” CAN’T STAND ON THIS, YOU KNOW,THESETIME BOMBS.>>Reporter: PRO-DEMOCRACY LEADER JOSHUA WONG HAS BEEN ARRESTED FIVE TIMES IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS. (PROTESTING IN CHINESE)>>Reporter: IN 2015, THE EMPLOYEES OF A BOOKSTORE THAT SOLD BOOKS CRITICIZING BEIJING DISAPPEARED INSIDE MAINLAND CHINA. AND IN 2016 AND 2017, UNDER PRESSURE FROM BEIJING, HONG KONG’S HIGH COURT DISQUALIFIED ELECTED MEMBERS OF HONG KONG’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT, INCLUDING THE YOUNGEST-EVER MEMBER, 23-YEAR-OLD NATHAN LAW.>>AT THE END OF THE DAY, THAT ACCUMULATED ANGER, THE INFURIATED CROWDS, EXPLODED IN… IN THIS SUMMER AND BECAME WHAT WE HAVE SEEN.>>Reporter: LAW SAYS HE WAS DISQUALIFIED NOT BECAUSE OF A PROPER RULING BUT BECAUSE BEIJING WAS AFRAID OF THE YOUNGER GENERATION’S POWER.>>I PROMISED TO MY CONSTITUENCY THAT I WILL NOT OBEY A REGIME THAT BRUTALLY KILLS ITS PEOPLE. I WILL KEEP MY PROMISE IN MY CAMPAIGN, THAT I WILL SERVE THE PEOPLE INSTEAD OF THE REGIME. AUTONOMY, DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW HAS ALWAYS BEEN OUR CORE VALUES AND…>>Reporter: LAST MONTH, LAW AND OTHER PRO-DEMOCRACY ACTIVISTS URGED THE U.S. CONGRESS TO PASS LEGISLATION THAT WOULD ALLOW THE ADMINISTRATION TO SANCTION CHINA FOR ANY HONG KONG CRACKDOWN. THEY SAY THEY NEED U.S. HELP.>>WE ARE AT A STAGE WHERE, YOU KNOW, THAT WE HAVE TRIED ALL THE TACTICS THAT WE CAN ON THE GROUNDS IN HONG KONG. BUT THEN, THAT’S NOT ENOUGH TO… TO GAIN THAT TRACTION THAT WE NEED TO… TO KEEP THIS MOMENTUM GOING ON. ♪ ♪ ♪>>Reporter: DENISE HO WAS ONE OF HONG KONG’S BIGGEST POP STARS. SINCE SHE STARTED PROTESTING, BEIJING REMOVED HER MUSIC FROM CHINESE WEB SITES AND BANNED HER FROM PERFORMING IN MAINLAND CHINA. SHE SAYS THE PROTEST LEADERS ARE NOT DEMANDING REVOLUTION, JUST JUSTICE.>>WE ARE AT… AT THE STAGE WHERE, YOU KNOW, HONG KONG IS IN A POLICE STATE. AND WE DO NOT HAVE ANY MEANS WHATSOEVER TO… TO BRING JUSTICE TO THIS SITUATION OF POLICE VIOLENCE AND BRUTALITY.>>Reporter: ON WEDNESDAY, FOR THE FIRST TIME, POLICE SHOT A PROTESTER WITH LIVE AMMUNITION, A STEP UP FROM THE TEAR GAS AND BATONS USED PREVIOUSLY. BUT THE VIOLENCE GOES BOTH WAYS. BACK ON JULY 1, PROTESTERS BROKE INTO THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. THEY RANSACKED THE BUILDING, SPRAY-PAINTED CRUDE MESSAGES ON THE WALLS, AND BRIEFLY OCCUPIED THE MAIN CHAMBER, THE SEAT OF HONG KONG POWER. THERE ARE PEOPLE WITHIN THIS MOVEMENT WHO SAY THAT THIS WAS A MISTAKE AND THAT YOU NEEDED TO STAY PEACEFUL IN ORDER TO MAKE YOUR POINT. WHAT’S YOUR RESPONSE TO THAT?>>FOR THE YOUNG PEOPLE, THEY SAID THAT, YOU KNOW, LIKE, PEOPLE LIKE ME HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR 30 YEARS, 40 YEARS, AND THEY DON’T WANT TO BE LIKE US, HAVING TO WAIT 40 YEARS. AND I CAN UNDERSTAND THIS SENTIMENT. (PROTESTING IN CHINESE)>>Reporter: LEE CHEUK YAN IS A UNION ORGANIZER AND FORMER MEMBER OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. HE SAYS BEIJING’S TRYING TO SILENCE HONG KONG DEMONSTRATORS TO PREVENT CHANGE IN HONG KONG, AND PREVENT ANYONE IN MAINLAND CHINA FROM MAKING THE SAME DEMANDS.>>CHINA IS TRYING TO DESTROY HONG KONG AND OUR IDENTITY, OUR CULTURE, OUR RULE OF LAW, OUR ASPIRATIONAL DEMOCRACY, OUR FREEDOM. THE COMMUNIST PARTY IS TRYING TO BAN ALL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN CHINA. SO, THE ONLY WAY FOR HONG KONG TO SURVIVE, TO HAVE DEMOCRACY, IS THAT WE NEED TO FIGHT CHINA ALSO. WE NEED TO CHANGE CHINA BEFORE CHINA CHANGE US.>>Reporter: PRO-DEMOCRACY PROTESTERS BELIEVE THEIR MORE AGGRESSIVE TACTICS ARE ACCELERATING CHANGE, BUT BEIJING HAS USED THE TACTICS TO PORTRAY PROTESTERS AS VIOLENT THREATS TO STABILITY. ON FACEBOOK, CHINESE STATE MEDIA OUTLET “CHINA DAILY” EQUATED THE PROTESTERS TO TERRORISTS WHO ATTACKED THE U.S. ON 9/11.>>(translated): FOR TWO MONTHS NOW, THE HONG KONG POLICE HAVE BEEN DOING THEIR DUTY ACCORDING TO THE LAW. HONG KONG’S RADICAL DEMONSTRATORS HAVE REPEATEDLY ATTACKED POLICE OFFICERS WITH EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TOOLS. THEY HAVE ALREADY COMMITTED SERIOUSLY VIOLENT CRIMES AND HAVE BEGUN TO SHOW SIGNS OF TERRORISM.>>Reporter: CHINA ALSO BEGAN THREATENING TO USE ITS MILITARY. TROOPS MASSED ON THE HONG KONG BORDER, AND THE ARMY UNIT ALREADY GARRISONED IN HONG KONG, RELEASED A SLICK VIDEO SHOWING SOLDIERS PRACTICING. BUT BEIJING KNOWS THERE’S CONSEQUENCES TO ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE U.S. IF THE MILITARY INTERVENES BECAUSE THAT’S WHAT PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS WARNED.>>WE’RE ALSO CAREFULLY MONITORING THE SITUATION IN HONG KONG. THE WORLD FULLY EXPECTS THAT THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT WILL HONOR ITS BINDING TREATY. HOW CHINA CHOOSES TO HANDLE THE SITUATION WILL SAY A GREAT DEAL ABOUT ITS ROLE IN THE WORLD IN THE FUTURE.>>Reporter: CHINESE OFFICIALS SAY COMMENTS LIKE THAT ENCOURAGE PROTESTERS TO BECOME SEPARATISTS.>>(translated): THE SITUATION IN HONG KONG HAS DETERIORATED TO THE POINT WHERE SOME PROTESTERS DARE TO OPENLY CHALLENGE THE PRINCIPLE OF “ONE COUNTRY, TWO SYSTEMS.” I DON’T THINK THIS IS INDEPENDENT FROM THE IRRESPONSIBLE AND INCITING REMARKS OF SOME WESTERN POLITICIANS.>>Reporter: AND BEIJING’S DEFENDERS POINT OUT ONE OF THE PROTESTORS’ CORE DEMANDS, DIRECT ELECTIONS, CAN ONLY HAPPEN IF BEIJING ALLOWS IT.>>HONG KONG IS PART OF CHINA, AND, ACCORDING TO OUR CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER UNDER THE BASIC LAW RIGHT NOW, FOR ANY KIND OF UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN HONG KONG OR POLITICAL REFORM, WE NEED A CONSENT FROM THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.>>Reporter: HOLDEN CHOW IS THE VICE CHAIRMAN OF A PARTY CONSIDERED PRO-BEIJING. HE SAYS IF BEIJING IS GOING TO CONSIDER GIVING IN TO DEMONSTRATORS’ DEMANDS, THE PROTESTS NEED TO STOP AND SPLITS IN HONG KONG’S SOCIETY NEED TO HEAL.>>THERE’S A KIND OF MISTRUST BETWEEN SOME PEOPLE IN HONG KONG AND ALSO THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND MAINLAND. SO, IF WE ARE NOT ABLE TO GAIN THAT TRUST, I DON’T THINK WE WILL BE ABLE TO IMPLEMENT ANY KIND OF UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE.>>Reporter: BUT THAT MEANS THE TWO SIDES MIGHT BE CAUGHT IN A VICIOUS CIRCLE BECAUSE DEMONSTRATORS VOW NOT TO STOP UNTIL THEIR DEMANDS ARE MET.>>I THINK THE KEY TO FIX THE POLITICAL PROBLEM IN HONG KONG IS REALLY TO HAVE MORE DEMOCRACY HERE, NOT LESS DEMOCRACY. THE MORE YOU CRACK DOWN, THE MORE PEOPLE WILL BE DISGRUNTLED, WILL BUILD UP A LOT OF GRIEVANCES.>>Reporter: AND THOSE GRIEVANCES MAY HAVE ALREADY FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGED THE CITY. PRO-BEIJING AND PRO-DEMOCRACY PROTESTERS HAVE SCUFFLED IN SHOPPING MALLS. AND AS THE PROTESTS ESCALATED, MORE AND MORE HONG KONG RESIDENTS HAVE DECIDED THE CITY MAY NOT BE A GOOD PLACE TO RAISE THEIR CHILDREN, INCLUDING SHAM SHAM’S FATHER.>>Reporter: HONG KONG FAMILIES, RESIDENTS ON BOTH SIDES, AND PRO-DEMOCRACY ACTIVISTS AND BEIJING ARE FIGHTING FOR THE CITY’S FUTURE, AND THE FIGHT IS NOWHERE NEAR OVER. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M NICK SCHIFRIN IN HONG KONG.>>Sreenivasan: TO SEE ALL OF OUR CHINA SERIES AND MORE, VISIT www.pbs.org/newshour.>>Sreenivasan: THE HBO TELEVISION SERIES “GAME OF THRONES” SET A RECORD THIS YEAR WITH 32 EMMY NOMINATIONS FOR ITS FINAL SEASON. THEY WON IN 12 OF THOSE CATEGORIES. THE SUCCESS OF THE SHOW IS HAVING AN UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCE ON THE CITY WHERE IT WAS FILMED. TOURISTS ARE MAKING THE MEDIEVAL WALLED CITY ONE OF EUROPE’S HOTTEST TRAVEL DESTINATIONS. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT, CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY, HAS THE STORY.>>Reporter: DUBROVNIK, CROATIA. EVEN IF YOU’VE NEVER BEEN TO THIS GEM OF THE ADRIATIC, CHANCES ARE YOU’VE SEEN THIS CITYSCAPE STRAIGHT OUT OF A FANTASY. OR, RECOGNIZE THAT MUSIC? ♪ ♪ ♪ WITH ITS SEA, ANCIENT HISTORY, AND THESE MEDIEVAL WALLS, DUBROVNIK WAS ALREADY A MAGNET FOR TOURISM. THEN, VIRTUALLY OVERNIGHT, THINGS WENT INTO HYPERDRIVE. THAT’S THE DAY THE DRAGONS CAME. THIS IS KING’S LANDING FROM “GAME OF THRONES.” FOR SEVEN OF THE SERIES’ EIGHT SEASONS, DUBROVNIK WAS THE BACKDROP OF THIS MOST IMPORTANT OF SETTINGS IN ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR AND PRAISED TV SERIES OF ALL TIME. AND IT’S BROUGHT THIS MODEST BALKAN CITY A JOLT OF NOTORIETY.>>I REMEMBER WHEN I FIRST WATCHED IT. IT WAS JUST, “OH, MY GOD!”>>WELL, FIRST, WE HEARD ABOUT THE “GAME OF THRONES,” YOU KNOW. THIS SHOW WAS SHOT HERE. AND WE WERE EXCITED ABOUT THAT.>>SO, LIKE, CROATIA, THIS WAS LIKE, ONE OF THE THINGS I WAS LOOKING FORWARD TO THE MOST, LITERALLY, WAS THE “GAME OF THRONES” TOUR.>>Reporter: THAT’S RIGHT, NOW THERE ARE “GAME OF THRONES” TOURS. OUR GUIDE, IVAN VUKOVIC, SAYS THEY’RE THE MOST POPULAR TOURS IN A TOWN VISITED BY TWO MILLION TOURISTS A YEAR, ROUGHLY DOUBLE WHAT IT GOT BEFORE THE HBO SERIES TOOK FLIGHT.>>NOW, YOU’RE GOING TO SEE THE PLACE WHERE JOHN SNOW LEFT KING’S LANDING, SENT OFF… SET OFF TO THE NORTH.>>Reporter: AND WHAT “GAME OF THRONES” TOUR WOULD BE COMPLETE WITHOUT TAKING THE WALK OF SHAME, THE ONE THAT HUMILIATED QUEEN CERSEI BEFORE ALL OF KING’S LANDING?>>SHAME!>>SHAME!>>Reporter: TODAY, TOURISTS CAN REENACT THE SCENE, AND LOCAL VENDORS ARE CASHING IN WITH SHAME FOOD, SHAME DRINKS. SHAME COCKTAILS?>>SHAME COCKTAILS, SHAME MOJITO, SHAME BURGER.>>Reporter: BUT, FOR SOME HERE, WHAT’S A “SHAME” IS SOMETHING ELSE ENTIRELY. I’M ON A “GAME OF THRONES” TOUR IN THE HEART OF THE OLD TOWN OF DUBROVNIK. NOW, THE PEOPLE ON THIS TOUR, THEY’RE HAVING A BLAST. AS FAR AS THE LOCALS? NOT SO CONVINCED.>>SOMEHOW IT GOT TO BE OVERTOURISM, SO…>>Reporter: OVERTOURISM?>>OVERTOURISM, YEAH.>>Reporter: SO, THAT MEANS THERE’S TOO MANY?>>THERE IS TOO MANY. SOMETIMES THERE IS WAY TOO MANY BECAUSE WE LIVE IN A MEDIEVAL CITY WHICH IS SURROUNDED BY THE WALLS. SO, YOU CAN’T PACK 20,000 PEOPLE TO BE IN A CITY WHICH WAS DESIGNED FOR 7,000 PEOPLE. SO, I CALL IT, IN MY WAY, A BLESSING AND A CURSE.>>Reporter: WAITER LUJO JURECIC IS ALSO OF TWO MINDS.>>IT IS A GOOD THING SINCE WE ALL HAVE OUR LIVING FROM IT. SO, IT IS A GOOD THING.>>Reporter: BUT THE TOURIST ECONOMY MEANS HE CAN’T AFFORD TO LIVE IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD HE GREW UP IN, ONE THAT’S GETTING HARDER TO EVEN RECOGNIZE.>>I THINK DUBROVNIK HAS LOST ITS INTEREST AS IN A TOWN, AS ITS HISTORY, BY IT’S BECOME MORE LIKE “GAME OF THRONE’S” KING’S LANDING. IT’S A STEP FORWARD TO BRING MORE PEOPLE HERE, BUT I THINK DUBROVNIK IS LOSING ITS AUTHENTICITY.>>Reporter: BAR OWNER STJEPAN PERIC TAKES A MORE DIRE VIEW.>>(translated): I THINK EVERYONE WHO LIVES HERE WILL EVENTUALLY MOVE AWAY. THE CITY WILL BE LIKE A MUSEUM, AND PEOPLE WILL PAY A TICKET TO GET IN. THEY WON’T SEE A LIVING CITY.>>THIS TOWN NEEDS TO LIVE AND NEEDS TO CONTINUE FOR THE FUTURE. NO ONE WANTS TO COME IN DEAD TOWN.>>Reporter: MATO FRANKOVIC IS THE MAYOR OF DUBROVNIK. HE POINTS OUT THAT THE CITY AS A WHOLE HAS ONLY 42,000 RESIDENTS, ROUGHLY THE SAME NUMBER IT HAD BACK IN THE EARLY ’90s. THAT’S THE BLOODY PERIOD THAT SAW THE DISINTEGRATION OF YUGOSLAVIA AND THE SHOCKING BOMBARDMENT OF DUBROVNIK DURING THE CROATIAN-SERBIAN WAR. THE SCARS ARE STILL VISIBLE TODAY. BUT EVENTUALLY, VISITORS COULDN’T RESIST. AND WHEN THE REBOUND CAME, SPURRED BY “GAME OF THRONES,” THERE WERE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES, PARTICULARLY IN THE WALLED OLD TOWN. IT HAD CLOSE TO 3,000 RESIDENTS A DECADE AGO. TODAY, WITH HOMES BEING CONVERTED INTO VACATION RENTALS, THERE’S BARELY 1,000 FULL-TIMERS LIVING HERE. COMPARE THAT TO THE 10,000 TOURISTS WHO MIGHT COME IN A SINGLE DAY.>>WE HAVE A LOT OF VISITORS COMING JUST BECAUSE OF “GAME OF THRONES.” IS THAT GOOD? IT’S GOOD BECAUSE THEY’RE GOING TO SEE SOMETHING NEW AND SOMETHING UNIQUE. BUT THIS IS… AGAIN, WE ARE COMING ON THE BEGINNING, AND THIS IS AT THE MANAGEMENT OF THE TOURISM.>>Reporter: THE CITY IS MANAGING TOURISM, HE SAYS, BY LIMITING THE NUMBER OF CRUISE SHIPS AND TOUR BUSES. THE CITY HAS ALSO CUT THE NUMBER OF SOUVENIR STANDS BY 80% AND BANNED LOUD MUSIC AFTER 11:30 AT NIGHT– MEASURES IT TOOK AFTER UNESCO, THE CULTURAL BODY OF THE UNITED NATIONS, WARNED THE CITY RISKED LOSING ITS SPECIAL WORLD HERITAGE STATUS IN 2017.>>NO, NO. THEY TRIED TO KILL KING JOFFREY IN THE RIOT SCENE. NOT THIS GUY, THE BLOND GUY.>>Reporter: OF COURSE, TOUR GUIDE IVAN VUKOVIC SAYS DUBROVNIK CAN’T AFFORD TO BITE THE TOURIST HAND THAT FEEDS IT, EITHER– NOT AFTER SO MANY YEARS OF STRUGGLE, AND NOT NOW THAT “GAME OF THRONES” AIRED ITS FINAL SEASON EARLIER THIS YEAR, SOMETHING HE HOPES WON’T HURT HIS BUSINESS.>>YOU TRY TO TALK ABOUT DUBROVNIK AS AN AMAZING DESTINATION, AND NOW EVERYBODY WANTS TO SEE IT. SO, TEN YEARS AGO, I WAS BEGGING PEOPLE, LIKE, “CAN YOU VISIT US?”>>Reporter: SO, IS DUBROVNIK A VICTIM OF ITS OWN SUCCESS?>>SOMEHOW LIKE THAT. IT’S A VICTIM OF ITS OWN SUCCESS. THAT’S A PROBLEM– DON’T GETS TOO POPULAR, IF POSSIBLE.>>Reporter: OH, IS THAT YOUR ADVICE?>>(LAUGHS) IT’S MY ADVICE. LIKE, YOU TRY TO BE SUSTAINABLE, BUT IT’S VERY, VERY HARD BECAUSE YOU WILL NOT TELL THE PEOPLE “DON’T VISIT US.”>>THIS IS PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND,SATURDAY.>>Sreenivasan: IN ROME, UNCOLLECTED GARBAGE PLAGUES THE CITY. AND IT’S NOT ONLY TRASH. ROME’S RECYCLING PROGRAM IS OVERWHELMED, TOO. BUT THERE’S A GLIMMER OF HOPE IN A NEW PILOT PROJECT IN THE CITY’S METRO STATIONS. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S IVETTE FELICIANO HAS THE STORY.>>Reporter: IT’S CALLED “RECYCLE AND TRAVEL”– RETURN A PLASTIC BOTTLE, GET A FIVE-CENT EURO CREDIT ON A PHONE APP AND USE IT FOR TRANSIT TICKETS. 30 BOTTLES ADDS UP TO ENOUGH EUROS TO EARN A STANDARD METRO TICKET OR BUS PASS. AND IN ROME, THERE ARE PLENTY OF PLASTIC BOTTLES TO RECYCLE. YOU CAN SEE THEM EVERYWHERE, EVEN POPPING OUT OF THE REQUIRED COLOR-CODED COLLECTION BINS USED TO SEPARATE ORGANIC FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS.>>(translated): INSTEAD OF BEING THROWN AROUND, BOTTLES ARE PUT INSIDE INTO A SPECIAL RECYCLING MACHINE, BECAUSE THE SITUATION OF DIFFERENTIATED WASTE COLLECTION IS PROBLEMATIC IN ROME.>>Reporter: ROME’S MAYOR ROLLED OUT THE “RECYCLE FOR FREE RIDES” PROGRAM EARLIER THIS SUMMER AS PART OF A ONE-YEAR TRIAL IN THREE METRO STATIONS. EVEN A SMALL DENT IN THE ONGOING TRASH PROBLEM IN ROME IS SIGNIFICANT. THIS SUMMER, RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS COMPLAINED ROUTINELY ABOUT TONS OF GARBAGE PILED UP AND THE SMELL THAT RESULTED.>>(translated): THE SITUATION IS QUITE DISASTROUS. IN RECENT YEARS, ROME HAS FAILED TO CREATE AN EFFICIENT SYSTEM FOR DIFFERENTIATED WASTE COLLECTION, AS MILAN HAS DONE. AND IT HAS NOT BUILT THE RECYCLING PLANTS THAT ARE FUNDAMENTAL FOR A CITY WHERE THREE MILLION PEOPLE LIVE.>>Reporter: ROME’S MAYOR HAS ALSO PLEDGED TO ELIMINATE SINGLE USE PLASTIC CONTAINERS CITYWIDE. BUT WHILE THAT DEBATE CONTINUES, COMMUTERS SAY THE “RECYCLE TO TRAVEL” PROGRAM IS AN EXPERIMENT WORTH TRYING.>>(translated): I THINK THAT IF YOU USE MONEY TO INVOLVE PEOPLE IN RECYCLING, EVEN THOSE WHO HAVE NO CIVIC SENSE WILL RECYCLE.>>Sreenivasan: AS THE DEADLINE LOOMS FOR BRITAIN TO LEAVE THE EUROPEAN UNION, OUR SIGNATURE STORY TOMORROW WILL LOOK AT A DIFFERENT ASPECT OF BREXIT. SOME BUSINESSES ARE LEAVING BRITAIN EARLY AND FINDING NEW HOMES IN THE NETHERLANDS IN WHAT’S BEING CALLED A “BREXODUS.” THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND. I’M HARI SREENIVASAN. THANKS FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GOOD NIGHT.

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