PBS NewsHour live episode October 30, 2019

turning winds pick up in the Golden
State fueling already dangerous fires as a power company falls under greater
scrutiny over its role in the crisis then as migrants continue to make the
perilous Trek to the southern border new figures reveal the staggering number of
children taken into US custody in the past year and clinical trials may
revolutionize treatment for a broad swath of illnesses but who stands to
benefit tackling the diversity problem in medical research in this world of
drug development where everything is happening at a sprinters pace we’re not
taking the time to overcome that divide all that and more on tonight’s PBS news
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from viewers like you thank you there is no rest for the Wildfire weary
in Southern California a fire that exploded a life before dawn threatened
thousands of homes today and a presidential landmark Stephanie sy
begins our coverage a new day a new fire outside Los Angeles this time in Simi
Valley where winds of 70 miles an hour fanned the flames toward the Ronald
Reagan Presidential Library smoke surrounded the site but the center
escaped damage whole neighborhoods spent anxious hours
watching the fires march across dry hillsides as helicopters and tanker
planes dumped water and chemicals to slow the fire firefighters had sounded
the alarm overnight indeed the National Weather Service issued rarely used
extreme red flag warnings signaling severe fire danger over wide stretches
of the state in Northern California’s wine country the Kinkaid fire continues
to burn trees across Sonoma County were painted red with fire retardant
yesterday and by this morning power blackouts remained in effect for
hundreds of thousands of PG&E customers in the north officials said some of the
blackouts could last for days some of those forced to evacuate or coping with
no electricity say they’re becoming habituated to the havoc I hate to say it
we’re experienced you shouldn’t be experienced in something like this
enough is enough but governor Gavin Newsom insisted today
that blackouts must be short term we’ll make sure that there are brighter days
in the future we I assure you are not allowing any of this to be the new
normal and this will not take ten years to fix I can promise you that
the dangerous winds are expected to calm by tomorrow
but the tinder-dry conditions will last for the foreseeable future
for the PBS news hour I’m Stephanie sy Stephanie will be back with more on
what’s happening in California right after the news summary in the day’s
other in the days other news the Federal
Reserve cut short-term interest rates for the third time this year in a bid to
strengthen the economy the quarter point cut was expected but Fed chair Jerome
Powell signal that further reductions are on hold I’ve given you a sense of
what our outlook is it’s for moderate growth a strong labor market and
inflation near our 2 percent objective if something happens to cause us to
materially reassess that outlook that’s what would cause us to to change our
views on the appropriate stance of policy the central bank had raised rates
four times last year on impeachment there is new fallout from
tuesday’s testimony by an army lieutenant colonel on the White House
National Security Council staff Alexander VIN Minh was on the July phone
call between President Trump and the president of Ukraine in his closed-door
deposition Veneman said the White House summary of the call omitted references
to former Vice President Biden and corruption in Ukraine reaction today
broke down mostly along party lines I’ve read the transcript and if he had his
corrections in it doesn’t change anything for me there are a lot of
people on the call he’s the only corrections I’ve seen into me there
and they don’t change the substance at all what he’s raised though is an
important issue and that is whether or not to try the summary of the transcript
is complete and the fact that it went to a secret server very quickly tells me
there are political forces at work here that didn’t want the world to see what
was in meanwhile US House impeachment investigators asked former national
security adviser john bolton to testify next week committees conducting the
inquiry heard today from two foreign service officers they here tomorrow from
Tim Morrison the top Russia expert on the National Security Council staff a
senior administration official tells the NewsHour late today that Morrison has
resigned ahead of his deposition but that he quote has been considering doing
so for some time then number two official at the State Department says
that he does not know of any attempts by President Trump to have Ukraine
investigate the Biden’s Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan
testified today at his Senate confirmation hearing to be the
ambassador to Russia he said he was unaware of any pressure on Ukraine but
New Jersey Democrat Robert Menendez pressed the point do you think it’s ever
appropriate for the president to use his office to solicit investigations into a
domestic political opponent soliciting investigations into a domestic political
opponent I don’t think that would be in accord with our values Sullivan said he
had known that Rudy Giuliani the president’s personal lawyer worked to
remove the US ambassador to Ukraine from her post Murray yovanovich was recalled
last March Sullivan said he did not think that she had done anything wrong
the Pentagon today released video of the Saturday raid that killed Islamic state
leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi the images show special forces assaulting his
compound in northwestern Syria later bombs destroyed the site US officials
say that al Baghdadi blew himself up and two children died with him they
initially had said that three children were killed in Syria state-run media
report that government troops have with Turkish forces in northeastern
Syria it happened near us a line at the town that Turkey seized from Syrian
Kurdish led forces this month meanwhile Turkey’s president ray gypped I of Iran
said that some Kurdish fighters are still in a so-called safe zone along the
border he warned them to withdraw or face a new Turkish assault Facebook says
that it has removed dozens of pages and accounts that were part of a Russian
disinformation campaign in Africa the company says they were linked to a
Russian oligarch accused of interfering in the 2016 US presidential election and
in Washington FBI director Christopher ray told a congressional hearing that
Russia means to meddle again in next year’s election some of the things that
the Russians have tried in other countries we expect them to try to do
here as well which puts the premium on the point that I was making before about
our working width on the foreign influence I working with the social
media companies in particular to really get them to keep up in their game as
part of the defense in its announcement Facebook said that it took down nearly
200 accounts with more than 1 million followers across eight African nations
Twitter announced today that it will ban all political advertising on its service
starting November 22nd the company said that such ads on social media make it
too easy to spread messages by contrast Facebook said this month that it will
not fact check political ads Chicago and its teachers union may have a deal to
end a school strike the union says that it will submit a tentative agreement to
its members tonight if the city agrees to make up lost school days teachers
have been on strike for 10 days demanding better pay and smaller classes
and on Wall Street Stocks got a bit of a bump from the feds interest rate cut the
Dow Jones Industrial Average gained 115 points to close 27,000 186 the Nasdaq
rose 27 points and the S&P 500 added nearly 10 still to come on the NewsHour
California burning the danger grows the wind picks up the alarming number of
child migrants detained by the US over the past year 2020 Democratic hopeful
Julian Castro on why he’s seeking the presidency and much more this is the PBS
news hour from weta studios in Washington and in the west from the
Walter Cronkite School of Journalism at Arizona State University it is a very
difficult day yet again in much of California fires are burning throughout
several regions power is out for hundreds of thousands of people and some
are becoming worried that this kind of routine could be the new normal
Stephanie sy is back to look at those questions and she joins us from the news
hour West Bureau in Phoenix Judy firefighters are working furiously to
contain fast-moving brush fires in Simi Valley and other parts of Southern
California in the northern part of the state progress is being made against the
state’s largest fire the Kinkaid fire but life has been severely disrupted
because of force power outages that have become frequent Michael whare
has been following all of this closely he’s the director of the climate and
energy policy program at the Stanford woods Institute for the environment and
he joins me now from Oakland Michael thank you for your time so you’re in
Northern California where I understand even though the threat was great in the
last few days they’ve gotten a better hold on that Kincaid fire the urgency
right now is really in Southern California with those infamous as Santa
Ana winds creating a lot of fire dangers there tonight are dealing with these
conditions basically an open-ended challenge now for the state I think it’s
fair to say that they are the emerging science on the issue of these kind of
dangerous late fall events is that as the climate warms we’re likely to see
more and more of these very dangerous moments in the late fall where it’s very
difficult to control fires Michael even with these fires burning in Southern
California and one is actually burning close to the Ronald
Reagan a Presidential Library in Simi Valley we don’t see the same kind of
blackouts there that you have up north why is that that’s true we’ve seen a
smaller degree of safety blackouts being utilized by the Southern California
utilities although I think that may change two of the fires that have
occurred in recent weeks in Southern California appear to have been caused by
utility lines that were left on and so it may be the case that moving forward
we see a more extensive utilization to some degree Southern California
utilities have made investments over the last decade or so that that make them
more resistant to the high wind events high wind events like Santa Anas I’ve
been a more common feature of the Southern California landscape for longer
than the Northern California weather that led to the Kinkaid fire how is it
that forced power outages for millions of people has become a go-to response
during risky fire weather well I think that the problem we face in Northern
California is that we built a power system poles wires power plants that was
safe to operate during the 20th century and we’ve we’ve unfortunately
encountered a situation where the conditions really have changed at the
same time as more and more people are living in the dangerous areas and what
that means is that instead of having safe and reliable power now we have a
choice between safe or reliable power and California is really just beginning
to grapple with the consequences of that what about the precision of the
blackouts a number of people pointed out to me when I was reporting from Northern
California that despite the power outages the Kinkaid fire which was
likely started by a transmission tower that was left on by PG&E still happened
yes I think the PG&E is still learning how to do power shut offs in a in the
most effective way in a surgical way rather than kind of with it with a
scalpel rather than with a hammer and they are still learning which lines they
need to turn off which lines are at risk like
try some utilities Sandiego really is a standout in this have been working for
over a decade to improve their resilience to high wild fire risk
periods of time and so they’re able to turn off power only where the conditions
are most risky and leave it on where things are safer this is really hitting
a lot of people in their pocketbooks Michael and not everyone can afford a
generator or to install solar panels who should be responsible for a backstop for
people during a blackout well I think that’s a that’s a really important
question to ask the reality is that we’re likely to have these kinds of
power shut offs at least for the next few years and so we need to think about
keeping the lights on even for low and moderate-income people who cannot go out
and buy a generator that cost a couple of thousand dollars I think there’s an
important state role here perhaps a federal role in ensuring that
the impacts of climate change are are not disproportionately borne by those
who can least afford it the CEO of PG&E says that California residents should
expect up to a decade more of these blackouts before they can get their
equipment in order and the Governor of California Gavin Newsom said today that
he would not allow PG&E to take 10 years so what can be done I think there are
possibilities for accelerating the effort they depend on returning PG&E
to a better state of financial health so the company can actually make the
investments that are required to fix the problem but there are also important
limitations on how fast the work can occur mostly because we just don’t have
enough skilled linemen to send up the poles to make the changes that are
necessary it’s a very large system 125,000 miles of overhead line so making
it safe is going to take years hopefully not 10 years I think there are things
that can be done to accelerate the process especially the kind of slow
process of approving these kinds of investments that tend to occur at the
utility Commission at the same time I think that we’re going to need to think
about solutions for customers for small businesses and the communities that are
heavily impacted for residents that are most likely to be blacked out the
involve you no backup power of one sort or another there is no question that
patience is wearing thin after three weeks of these power shutdowns Michael
Laura the director of the climate and energy policy program at the Stanford
woods Institute for the environment Michael thank you thanks very much for
having me on we have a clearer picture tonight about
what has unfolded at the u.s. southern border over the past year new numbers
reveal a record number of migrants apprehended there in fiscal year 2019 US
Customs and Border Protection says that total was more than 850 thousand
migrants more than double the year before that includes a record number of
unaccompanied migrant children detained by US border officials for a closer look
at those numbers and the turmoil at the top of the agency responsible for
securing the border I’m joined by Amnon Abbas who’s been following this story
for us for a long time so I’m not i popping numbers what do we know about
what’s driving yet it’s a stunning number we’ve been reporting on this for
a while we know for most of those families they’re coming from Central
America from three countries El Salvador Honduras and Guatemala largely fleeing
economic instability and violence but take a look at how these numbers break
down Judy when you look at that one big eye popping number about 300,000 of
those migrants were single adults the largest group however was family units
that was almost 500 thousand that’s adults traveling with children and then
this unaccompanied minor children number rather over seventy six thousand two
things to point out that family units number that is what has been taxing the
system our system is not designed to handle families and children in that way
and that unaccompanied minors number that of course is children largely
arriving unaccompanied that’s also a record that’s higher than any number
even that the Obama administration had to manage and they had their own surges
they managed in 2014 and 2016 a lot of people are asking what happened to all
those children it’s important to point out they go into the care of another
government agency and that agency said they’ve also had a record number of
sponsors coming forward that’s vetted family and friends who come forward to
claim the children so most of those children are now with those sponsors so
again this is and again you’ve reported on this is an agency a system that was
never designed to handle families to handle children these numbers appear to
be unsustainable what what’s going to happen well look it’s absolutely
unsustainable it’s unfair for the Customs and Border Patrol officers on the
frontlines it’s unsafe for a lot of the families coming through the system but
it’s important to point out those numbers have been coming down in recent
months if you take a look at the southwest border apprehensions just over
the last five months May of the last fiscal year was a high point over
130,000 migrants crossing that came down month after month until September the
last year last month of this fiscal year down to about 40,000 that’s a low for
the entire year why is it coming down combination of a
couple of things one the Trump administration has put into place a lot
of new policies that prevent people from coming into the US and they’ve struck
deals with those countries of origin to keep people from leaving that’s kind of
set off a whole nother whole set of concerns about you know whether people
are allowed under human rights law to leave their country or even to pass
through Mexico on the way here we know it’s also unsafe and a lot of those
Mexican border towns where they’re now being held just over the weekend there
was a two year old boy who was killed in a hit and run he and his family were
waiting to legally enter the United States and a according to the National
Organization for Migration he’s the 20th child to die at the us-mexico border in
the last year so it’s not good conditions people are being forced to
wait in yeah so so concerning and and meanwhile while all this is going on the
agency that oversees all this the Department of Homeland Security one of
the largest agencies in the federal government hundreds of the hundreds of
thousands of employees they have had an acting secretary Kevin McAllen and he
announced this month earlier he’s leaving the job what do we know about
what’s next his last day is supposed to be tomorrow he will likely have to stay
because the president has not yet named a successor he’s run into one problem
under the federal vacancies Act which is that someone can’t hold two acting
positions at the same time under a DHS the top two candidates for this role Ken
Cuccinelli and Mark Morgan are both acting heads of DHS agencies at the
moment they’re ideologically aligned with the President and one of them may
end up getting the job but right now it’s a difficulty because of the federal
vacancies act but when you spoke about that turmoil at the top it’s worth a
look back under this president there have already been four heads of
DHHS John Kelly Elayne Duke Kirsten Nielsen Kevin michaleen and we do not
know for the broad mandate DHHS has beyond just immigration we have no idea
who’s going to be running it next to go from acting to acting to acting what do
we say I’m Nana Vaz thank you very much thanks Judy stay with us coming up on the news hour
Beirut and Baghdad on the brink the latest from the protest movements in
Lebanon and Iran how a lack of diversity in clinical trials threatened the
effectiveness of medical research and the latest pick for the now read this
book club Adam Winkler’s we the corporation’s who
lien Castro made his debut on the national stage in 2012 when he delivered
the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention as the mayor of San
Antonio Texas he later joined the Obama administration as the Secretary of
Housing and Urban Development and today he is one of 17 Democrats vying to win
his party’s presidential nomination joining us now from his hometown of San
Antonio Julian Castro welcome to the NewsHour great to be with
you Judy and I want to start with a question I’ve been asking every one of
the candidates and that is why you why are you in a better position why are you
more qualified than everyone else to be the Democratic nominee that’s a
great question and probably the question that those of us on the campaign trail
get asked the most look I think that people are looking for three things this
year number one they want somebody with the
right experience to be President they want somebody with a strong compelling
vision about the future of our country and of course they want somebody that
can beat Donald Trump I’m one of the very few candidates with strong
executive experience I’ve actually been in charge of something and gotten things
done I was mayor of the seventh largest city my hometown of San Antonio and I
served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under President Obama
managing a department that had 8,000 employees of 48 billion dollar budget
offices across the country so I have a strong track record of executive
experience I also have a strong compelling vision for the future
I want to make sure that everyone counts in this country not just 37% of the
country that this president considers his base but everybody and I’ve outlined
a blueprint for everybody to be able to prosper in the years ahead and I could
beat Donald Trump number of things I want to ask you about one of the issues
you’ve stress is emigrate you favor decriminalizing border
crossings what does that mean does it mean open borders it does not it means
that crossing the border without permission would still be against the
law but we would treat it like we used to treat it for more than 50 years under
Democratic and Republican presidents when it was considered a civil offense
the reason that I believe we need to go back to how we used to treat it and do
it effectively is that when Trump came in he weaponized one particular section
of the law that was passed in 1929 but wasn’t enforced for more than five
decades and he’s using that misdemeanor crime to incarcerate migrant parents and
to take them away from their kids what I’ve said is that I believe we can have
accountability we can have a secure border but we can do it with common
sense and compassion instead of cruelty and I don’t want that tool to be in the
toolbox for a future administration like a trump administration to separate
families so I’m trying to end family separation but still keep an orderly
immigration system some of your opponents disagree with you Joe Biden
says people should have to wait in line governor Steve Bullock of Montana said
the other day this would lead to an explosion of people at the border my
question is would you offer them free health care once they came across well I
mean let’s just get something straight under Donald Trump our immigration
challenge has actually gotten worse not better a couple months ago we had
144,000 people that showed up at the southern border we’ve had more people
that are coming because he didn’t do what I have said that he should do which
is for instance a 21st century Marshall Plan for Honduras El Salvador Guatemala
so that people can find safety an opportunity at home instead of having to
make the dangerous journey to the United States we need to engage in some
preventive actions so that we won’t see so many people show up at the southern
end of our border with regard to to health care for undocumented immigrants
who are already here I believe that everybody in this country should be able
to access health care now why do I say that
one if your taxpayer out there you may hear that and wonder like you know what
are you talking about you are already paying for people’s health care in this
country it’s called the emergency room right people show up in the emergency
room and that’s the most costly way that we can do health care if I were
president right now I would allow folks if they’re undocumented to buy into the
exchanges right so that they’re contributing something into the system
and they’re able to get preventive care think that’s smarter and a cheaper way
to do it let me just ask you several other things health care for all of us
your proposal is to automatically enroll everybody into a Medicare plan but give
them the chance to opt out if they want to keep their private insurance Joe
Biden has a kind of the mirror image of that he would have people opt it have to
opt in if they want to join Medicare for all why is your proposal better than the
his the difference is that my plan would cover everybody
whereas Joe Biden’s plan would leave 10 million people uninsured if we’re gonna
go through all of all of the battle that’s involved in reworking our health
care system makes no sense to leave 10 million people uninsured at the end of
the day so if we’re gonna do what we need to do it right staying in the race
you made a pretty I think it’s fair to say desperate appeal for money about
nine days ago you tweeted out a message saying if you couldn’t raise eight
hundred thousand dollars by October 31st that’s tomorrow that your campaign would
be silenced for good are you gonna make it I believe that we will we’re not
quite there yet but we’ve gotten grassroots contributions from all over
the country people putting in $5 $15 $25 I’m very proud that I have one of the
highest rates of small dollar contributions I think our average
contribution last quarter was $18 so it’s Americans from all walks of life
you know I’m not taking any PAC money any federal lobbyist money any money for
big oil and gas energy executives it’s powered by the people of this country I
believe that we’re gonna make it and then we’re gonna fight like crazy over
the next two weeks to try and get on the debate stage in November and so I’m
going to be in Iowa on Friday at the liberty and justice dinner I’m gonna be
in Iowa for a few days and also in some of these early States continuing to work
hard the New York Times ran a story today noticing that even though the
Democrats are fielding the most diverse group of candidates ever this year that
the candidates who seem to be at the top are all either white men three of them
Biden Sanders and Buddha Jojo are white woman Elizabeth Warren and that the
candidates of color you and others aren’t there when do you have a theory
about why that is people tend to gravitate right now at
least toward this idea that you have to go with a safe choice or a certain
profile of candidate that they think can win in Pennsylvania or in Ohio or in
Michigan but I think we should actually turn that over on on its head the last
time that we actually want big was with Barack Obama because he assembled an
unprecedented diverse young working class coalition of people that rose up
that got off the sidelines and into the voting booths I’m confident that I can
do that if I’m the nominee who Leanne Castro seeking the Democratic nomination
for president thank you very much thanks Judy and our interviews with Democratic
candidates continue on Friday when I travel to Iowa to sit down with former
Vice President Joe Biden tonight in Baghdad security services
killed at least two and wounded hundreds of protesters who are challenging the
very foundation of the government meanwhile in Lebanon there is a
caretaker government today after the prime minister resigned yesterday Nick
Schifrin is here with a look at the protest movements and what’s next
Iraqi and Lebanese protesters each took to the streets for local reasons but
they’re united in arguing that their governments are broken in Iraq the spark
was the firing of a popular general but listen to this Iraqi demonstrator demand
fundamental change the Iraqi people are not looking forward to reforms we want
the resignation of this government in Lebanon the spark was a lack of services
and attacks on a popular app but the protesters catchphrase is now all of
them as in they want all politicians to go from the beginning we said all of
them means all of them we are staying in the squares until they all go down
meanwhile the presence of Iran looms large in both countries for more were
joined by journalists peshwa maggie’d in Baghdad and special correspondent Jane
Ferguson in Beirut thank you very much to both of you Petra let me start with
you we have now seen a month of protests and extraordinary violence on the
streets 240 plus killed what speak what’s keeping people in the
streets despite all that violence I think that people have just gone to a
breaking point in terms of the corruption of the government and the
poverty that is present throughout Iraq 25 percent of Iraq’s youth are
unemployed and for them you know it’s either they protest or there’s nothing
for them in their future they think so Jane Fergus we have fundamental calls
about economic fears in Baghdad we certainly have seen very similar aspects
in Beirut we saw the Prime Minister Hariri resigned yesterday does that
answer protesters demands it answers the protesters to a certain extent in in the
sense that they are jubilant that they’ve been able to bring down the
prime minister himself but politics in Lebanon is very complicated because it’s
not just one person that’s why as you say the protesters
have been saying all of you all of you what they mean is they want all of the
political elites to step down in this country because it is a complex web of
sectarian and divided up power here in the country and getting rid of one
leader will not bring down the system that people here really want dismantle
the system that has caused widespread corruption a financial crisis and for
basically the quality of life in Lebanon to be extremely low for many people so
it’s a start but the protesters are saying that they will come back out onto
the streets if they don’t see cabinet ministers replaced with technocrats they
want to see those old faces that they consider symbolic of their past removed
so that they can be replaced with people they see as less corrupt and more
representative of the population pressure some on what unites these
protesters across these two countries are the economic fundamentals that both
have you been talking about but also that they go beyond traditional
sectarian divisions including some that Jane we’re just talking about why have
economic fears in Iraq become more important than secretary and loyalty and
why does that mean that so many are calling for Iran’s influence to decrease
in Iraq well I think we have to look at who are the main people protesting
they’re very young they’re from a generation that don’t see themselves as
ruled by sectarian differences the main thing that concerns them is that they
don’t really have any opportunities they don’t have a good education they don’t
have any work so for them they say we don’t care if you’re Shearer we don’t
care if you’re Sunni we just want someone who is Araki to govern Iraq and
when it comes to Iran Iran influences the current government very much and
many people believe that Iran’s influence on the government has led to
some of the corruption which has created the economic situation within Iraq so
throughout the protests you see people saying get out get out Iran we want
someone Iraqi to come and rule Iraq Cheney talked about the complicated
system of government in Lebanon of course sectarianism as you suggested is
written into the government itself how did the
protests and Prime Minister hurries resignation going to affect Iran and
Lebanon and the iran-backed Hezbollah group officially what the group have
been saying well we’ve been hearing from Hassan Nasrallah the leader of Hezbollah
is that they support the protesters in principle they support their calls for
less corruption their calls for reform in the country but they’ve also been
saying that they shouldn’t be blocking roads that they shouldn’t be causing
disruptions and what we saw yesterday were extraordinary scenes in Beirut
where hundreds of Hezbollah and their their allies Amal as supporters pouring
into the streets defying the police racing towards these protesters here and
attacking them with sticks bottles even rocks beating people up and essentially
tearing apart the protest camp that had been set up Hezbollah has a lot to lose
if this government were to collapse completely because those protesters keep
saying : : all of you that includes hassan nasrallah the head of Hezbollah
now he’s not technically in the government in Lebanon but people want
all of those political leaders to step down for Hezbollah supporters that’s a
step too far Hezbollah are experiencing to a certain extent you could even call
it something of an identity crisis because of these protests
they’ve always viewed themselves as a party of the people of the workingman of
the dress of the downtrodden but now they are whether whether they like it or
not they’re seen by the people as a political elite Hassan Nasrallah is seen
as a political elite pressure some of the fundamental reforms that the experts
say are necessary in Iraq cutting public sector payrolls nurturing the private
sector liberalizing oil profits is the government capable and willing to
actually institute some of those reforms that’s a hard question to answer I would
say that what a lot of protesters here have been saying is that the
government’s had about 16 years to institute those type of reforms and have
utterly failed up until this point many of the people in government have
been the same politicians in different positions for around a decade or so and
they have not yet been able to institute reforms and despite Iraq being a very
very oil-rich country the basic services are still lacking and it does not seem
likely that as you said the very bloated public sector could go away anytime soon
and Jane just quickly in the time we have left expand out a little bit for us
for the region what’s the impact of these protest movements and that these
two governments are being fundamentally challenged right now it’s a big
statement for the region Nick in terms of what people want and the fact that
they are defying sectarianism they’re defying traditional politics and what
we’re hearing is a louder and louder voice that is to a certain extent
reminisce of the Arab Spring of 2011 and 2012 but different in the sense that
it’s more focused on economic reform what we’re seeing now is a younger
generation that have lost patience with the results of corruption and
sectarianism and they’re a lot more focused on what they want which is a
more more modern and an acceptable standard of living for young people Jane
Ferguson in Beirut Petra maggie’d in Baghdad thank you very much the country’s diversity is becoming ever
greater but medical research that could benefit the populace is not keeping pace
a recent review of government-funded cancer research studies found that all
racial and ethnic minorities were considerably underrepresented it also
found that fewer than 2% of these clinical trials focused specifically on
the needs of minorities there is growing awareness of the problem and there are
some new and promising efforts to correct it special correspondent Kath
wise has the story it’s part of our regular coverage about the leading edge
of science and medicine 70 questions are intimate
Brittany Powell wasn’t supposed to be here in 2019 on the campus of Sacramento
State studying to become a doctor so same mechanism but you’re using
different reagents in middle school she was paralyzed her doctors told her that
treatment for the large-scale cancerous tumor pressing into her spine had failed
that she would likely be dead within months her only hope a game-changing
clinical trial that her mom found in Santa Monica nearly 400 miles from home
and the issue became how are we going to get there every week just for the
loading dose because for the first month we had to go once a week and then after
that we’d have to continue to go once a month and at this time she’s out of work
and we don’t have any extra funds to continue to drive down there and to
support the household so this is Brittany Brittany and her mom needed
some help and they got it from this woman
Dana Dorn safe she runs a non-profit in the Bay Area called the laser axe Cancer
Foundation we might want to just consider like the organization fills a
gaping hole in the cancer treatment world by paying for the travel expenses
a low-income patient needs to get to a clinical trial says that you are looking
for assistance with parking tolls and gas is that correct and that simple fix
may help solve another gaping hole in medical research says Dorn safe
unfortunately many minority communities are gross
we underrepresented in clinical trials because they can’t afford to get there
in this world of drug development where everything is happening you know at a at
a sprinters pace right we’re not taking the time to overcome that divide
brittany powell is now cancer-free thanks to the clinical trial but she was
lucky according to the Food and Drug Administration only about 30 percent of
clinical trial participants for cancer drugs come from minority groups the rest
are white in an era of precision medicine when drugs are being developed
for and tailored to specific segments of the population diversity is essential
because some diseases and drugs impact racial groups in different ways george
Ocampo has been part of the laser axe push to reverse those numbers he
couldn’t work during five grueling rounds of chemo for pancreatic cancer a
clinical trial for a new treatment two hours from home didn’t seem like an
option lazar axe has footed the bill for his
trips to the University of California San Francisco the gas tolls parking and
hotel stays while he participated in the trial they also paid for airfare for
those traveling longer distances those seemingly small interventions have
helped Ocampo and other patients access cutting-edge care they otherwise
wouldn’t have received and hopefully they get city approved and then it’ll be
a drug that was be here for a long time a randomized controlled trial of Lazar
axes interventions found the financial assistance can have a big impact
minority participation in Lazar axe back studies at UCSF and the University of
Southern California was 78 percent compared to national statistics for
minority groups and cancer oncology trials the FDA’s recent report found
just 15 percent were Asian four percent were black or African American and four
percent were Hispanic lack of diversity is a problem that extends well beyond
clinical trials basic research has also been long
dominated by people of European ancestry this train is is speeding out of the
station and the African American unity doesn’t seem to be on it nearly with the
representation that it that it deserves and when we take this
Daniel Weinberger is the head of the Liebherr Institute for brain development
in Baltimore the Train he’s referring to is once again the revolution of
precision medicine this is how we store over 3,000 samples of human brain tissue
this keeps expanding this is a major enterprise this institute which has an
affiliation with Johns Hopkins has built one of the world’s largest collections
of post-mortem human brains devoted to understanding mental illness and brain
development so far most of the brain research here and elsewhere has been
centered on people with European ancestry that’s because their genomic
code is newer and simpler than other groups including people with African
ancestry earlier this year a study found that a full 10% of the African genome is
missing from the famous reference human genome mapped by scientists at the turn
of the century and that’s widely used as a baseline for researchers it was like a
wake-up call my my my 10% missing how is that possible that
this has been overlooked to this degree the Liebherr Institute has collected
some 500 brains of African Americans in recent years but there hasn’t been the
funding to study them specifically Weinberger says that lack of research is
a big problem we learned for a long time for example that many medicines used to
treat psychiatric disorders are metabolized differently in African
Americans and many of the studies have shown that they don’t respond as well to
some medicines in part because they’re metabolized differently and unless we
understand that we’re not going to be able to make the personalized insights
that we can make so far the Caucasian genome but going about this kind of
research on that Johns Hopkins campus is sensitive business this is after all the
institution that harvested cells from Henrietta Lacks without her consent in
the mid 1900s creating an immortal cell line that is still used by researchers
today events like that and the rumors that followed led to mistrust of the
medical establishment which remains high today
Johns Hopkins had this kind of spirit hovering over it that you didn’t want to
walk by and night because they were using people for spare
body parts that’s Reverend Al Hathaway senior pastor of the Union Baptist
Church and one of the most influential voices in the city of Baltimore he was
skeptical too of a group trying to collect brains as I began to work with
them what I realized was that the funding is kind of slanted towards a
European data set so I said well wait a minute that’s that’s not really bias
that’s just accessibility and so I didn’t see it as like something that was
structurally wrong I saw it as something that we could correct in collaboration
with the Liebherr Institute Hathaway and a group of fellow Baltimore clergy
members have created the first african-american neuroscience research
initiative their goal is to help the Institute use specimens already on hand
to fill in genomic gaps and create a publicly accessible data set that would
speed both research and medical innovation but even as they push forward
all those involved in the project are proceeding carefully knowing that
science has been used in the past to emphasize racial differences in harmful
ways and exploit minority communities as more becomes known about genomic
differences between racial groups some are concerned that could happen again
no genome is without its advantages and its disadvantages the true of every
genome this is just a matter of identifying them and coming up with ways
to make them less debilitating back in California
George Ocampo is back on his feet with the support of his wife Trisha we held
each other for a few moments and then he stopped and said Trisha look at me it’s
okay we’re gonna get through this it’s just another bump in the road more than
three dozen friends and family members came out for a recent cancer fundraising
event with a hashtag on all their backs no one fights alone and the hope that
the research of the future will move closer to that goal as well for the PBS
news hour I’m Kat Weis in Hollister California as the month comes to a close it is time
for the latest conversation of our book club now read this in partnership with
the New York Times william brangham has that and stick around for what to read
in November the 2010 Supreme Court ruling Citizens United shocked the
country effectively granting corporations the same free speech rights
as individuals and further opening the floodgates of money into our elections
many saw citizens united is a dangerous new development one that blurred the
line between citizens and corporations but UCLA law professor Adam Winkler
demonstrates in his book that it was just the latest in a very long line of
victories largely overlooked by history where corporations fought for and won
sweeping civil rights protections we the corporations is that book and then now
read this choice for October Adam Winkler the author is here welcome
thanks so much for having me I have to admit this book really was a revelation
to find out so many of these things that we did that I really had no idea about
in particular and many of our viewers it seems after reading this 200 year
history of corporate rights being enshrined in law it made many of them
mad one of them wrote in saying that her blood was boiling at why you had
documented could you just briefly sketch out the kinds of rights that
corporations have one for themselves over the decades sure I mean
corporations have been fighting and winning constitutional rights in the
Supreme Court for over 200 years and even though the Supreme Court over the
years didn’t really protect the rights of women or racial minorities up until
the 1950s at least throughout all that time the court was often siding with
corporations and corporations were granted the right to sue in court in the
early 1800s were granted rights of equal protection and due process in the late
1800s corporations today have won most of the criminal criminal protection
rights that are in the Constitution as well as in more recent years rights of
freedom of speech and freedom of religion we all remember when Mitt
Romney made that comment about corporations or people to my friend and
and people on the Left ridiculed him for that but as your document there really
is this long legal history where the courts have viewed
corporations as people can you explain how that happened and why that happened
well no issue is more controversial in the wake of citizens united than this
idea of corporations as people but the idea of corporate personhood is actually
deeply embedded in the law and it’s just the idea that a corporation is its own
independent entity in the eyes of the law and it’s separate and distinct from
the shareholders or the employees or the investors in that company and that’s why
if you slip and fall at a Starbucks you have to sue the Starbucks company you
can’t sue the individual investors corporate personhood enables us to hold
corporations accountable when they commit crimes or torts when we sue BP
for the oil spill in the Gulf we’re relying on corporate personhood to give
us an identifiable body that we can sue and hold responsible I think what’s gone
awry perhaps in the Supreme Court in recent years is that the court has
extended rights that don’t seem to fit the business corporation of today things
like a right to influence elections or freedom of religion and giving
corporations the ability to opt out of certain kinds of laws things that just
don’t seem like they’re part of that long history and tradition of corporate
personhood for instance in the Hobby Lobby case the Supreme Court says a
corporation has religious liberty and then says well we need to protect the
religious liberty of hobby lobby’s owners the grist was the case for people
who have not followed this this was the green family who said that the
Affordable Care Act requirement that they provide contraception to their
employees violated their personal religious beliefs and you’re saying that
that that the court misconstrued that idea in that case well what the court
did is it pierced the corporate veil it didn’t base the write the case on the
rights of the corporate entity but on the rights of the family behind the
corporation and when we understand that in terms of what corporate personhood
really should mean which is a strict separation between the business entity
on the one hand and the people behind the business we can see that Hobby Lobby
actually rejected the principle of corporate personhood rather than truly
embraced it you right at the beginning of your book that you don’t mean this to
be a condemnation or even really a critique of this growing corporate
rights but the the cover of your book does have a wadded up copy of the
Constitution on it which implies that the Constitution has been damaged
here how do you weigh that well it is an arresting image on the cover and so we
love that but you know in some ways we might think with the metaphors being the
opposite that the involvement of corporations in American constitutional
law has had some bad effects and citizens united may be a perfect example
of that of expanding corporate influence over elections where corporations don’t
belong but at the same time corporate rights have also had a positive effect
in some examples so for instance in the 1930s when newspaper corporations were
trying to fight back against censorship imposed upon them by Huey Long the
demagogue governor of Louisiana they only were able to fight back against
that censorship because they had a First Amendment right of freedom of the press
a lot of readers asked questions that it seemed to struggle with this idea of is
this trend is it irreversible do corporations now have these rights and
that that’s never going to change what is your sense from studying the long
history of this well there is a movement afoot to amend the Constitution to
eliminate rights for corporations and more than 19 states have endorsed some
kind of constitutional amendment to overturn citizens united and if that
amendment really gathers steam and we might see corporations actually lose
some of these constitutional rights that they have gained but I think we have to
approach that issue with some nuance and at least some hesitation in the sense
that we don’t want to deprive for instance the new york times company of
its right of freedom of the press and we don’t want to deny any other company
that has property rights over its inventory and the government can’t come
and for instance seize coca cola’s recipes and make its own coca-cola
without paying just compensation so we want to think about the role that
constitutional rights do play in limiting government power and sometimes
that means protecting corporations the book is we the corporations how American
businesses won their civil rights adam winkler thank you very much for doing
this thank you we will continue this conversation online where you can find
it later on but before we go I want to introduce our now read this pick for
November the winner of the 2019 Pulitzer Prize in fiction it’s a novel about
trees or relationship to the natural world and about activism and resistance
it called the overstory it’s the 12th book
from National Book Award winner Richard powers as always will hope you’ll join
us and read along with others on our website and Facebook page now read this
which is the PBS NewsHour’s book club partnership with the New York Times on
the NewsHour online right now the Trump administration has touted its efforts to
build hundreds of miles of new border wall by the end of next year we take a
closer look at what has been done so far and whether the new designs adequately
address the changing nature of immigration that’s on our web site
pbs.org/newshour and that’s the NewsHour for tonight I’m Judy Woodruff join us
online and again here tomorrow evening for all of us at the PBS Newshour thank
you and we’ll see you soon major funding for the PBS Newshour has
been provided by Consumer Cellular offers no-contract wireless plans that
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you you

37 thoughts on “PBS NewsHour live episode October 30, 2019

  1. Newson! Such a lier! Has done nothing for the homeless, but, giving millions to take care of illegals who keep coming knowing they are given evrething! Traitor newson😰😰

  2. I grew up in Southern California, we always had Santa Ana winds. But, the fire season really only started in late September, and lasted till the winter rains came around November. Now, fire season is near year round. We might experience drought conditions for a year of two, but never seven years in a row like happens now. It really has only been this horrible since the new century began. Anyone claiming climate change is not real and man made, that climate has always changed as rapidly, and drastically, as it has in the last score of years is delusional.

  3. These criminal politicians are burning out these Americans from there homes just like the criminal politicians did in Detroit back in the 1980s to make for illegal immigrants to move in.

  4. PBS NewsHour really needs to find something to focus upon besides the California fires! There's news outside of California and New York!

  5. It's bad for everybody when PBS reports a white man shooting a black girl pointing a gun at them that we still don't know if is legal what is her real intentions were instead of referencing it without gender as a police shooting. That kind of reporting is bad for everyone. Not to mention Judy's apparent Trump bashing bullying fair to Right minded guests and pushing the consequences of illegal immigrants instead of the poor problem that escapes Democratic concern. You kids and busy and confused and old folks need a higher resolution? No Judy etc. Open borders aren't the solution we might not survive the damage done already to our sensibilities and economy. Imagine Ann Coulter as a guest. That's right up there with polygraphs for priesthood and washing your hands between patients.

  6. I'm not just an American
    I'm a humanitarian who believes we're all in this together no matter race creed or sex
    I looking for a Hispanic wife

  7. Regarding the genome and genetics story today: why don't the executives of drug companies pay for travel expenses of minorities for clinical trials? They make way too much on stock options when drugs are successful. And yes, some drugs aren't successful. But non-profits should not be fitting the bill for these breakthrough drugs. Reveals the racial divide at big pharma.

  8. Not enough linemen for fire protection could be a weak school system and Inequality perpetuated by racism. These issues disabled America Get it together.

  9. the Governor of California says "this won't take ten years to fix". Well, he is partially right. In ten years, we will be in much worse conditions than we are now. Its become obvious that , ten years ago, we were at the thin end of the wedge. Now its steeply, and quickly getting much worse. Whether its floods, typhoons and hurricanes, or worsening dryness and heat, its all getting bad before our very eyes. Ten years…..I guess he didn't read the memo.

  10. [47:44]. if 49% of clinical trials are done outside the US, then it would appear that there is diversity in medical research. But the host just had to further racial tensions by putting a spin on it. Love you anyway PBS

  11. Government needs to take over the public utilities like PG and E. Need to be responsive to the people, not the shareholders.

  12. PG&E is irresponsible, time to go solar. I can see massive lawsuits coming, I don't think they will survive this disregard for life and safety with Trump in office. Trump put CA governors on notice about 2 months ago. Good luck!

  13. Freedom of the Press is in the First Amendment. That protection predates the Supreme Court's jurisprudence declaring corporations persons.

  14. Most of us in America dont want a replacement for President Trump. If the crooks dont frame or kill him he will win by a landslide.
    Why is PBS giving people free air time for commercials while making snide remarks against the current administration?
    If this country drowns in the corrupt swamp it will be mostly main stream media to blame.
    PBS included.
    OMG Joe Biden Really! Why dont you ask him what happened to the Navy seals who helped get Osama Bin Laden due to him & Obama's big mouths.! Not to mention hes a crook!
    I dare you to ask any of these dogs any real questions.
    PS. I am one of millions who completely lost health care when Obamacare came in . My employer would no longer provide plan to part time people and insurance cost went from 52 month to 470 a month, from 1500 deductible to 6000 deductible. "We" ie the employed were supposed to help "float the boat" for those who couldnt. Instead we drowned and no one cared.
    Yea. Look at the riots because of corruption in other countries. People in US will not watch forever while corrupt politicians continue to steal from us and try to tell us what we must do and cannot do with our own money , property and bodies. And I do NOT consider the right to abortions the right to your own body. Another life is involved.
    I DO consider forced vaccination an abuse of my right to my own body.
    If anyone really cares about racial diversity why dont you look into what whistleblower dr thompson of CDC said about MMR vaccine & autism in black boys ?

  15. WE THE CORPORATION. This is waaay too forgiving of this horrible situation. No INC has ever been jailed. The CEO's that run them are protected when they want to be and, as with HOBBY LOBBY protected in the WRONG way when they want THAT. We have made royalty of the corporation and they operate with virtual impunity and innumerable subsidies, financial loopholes and perks. It's sickening what it's done to our culture and compromised the will of the peopled. SICKENING and DANGEROUS.

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