One Health: How Dog Gut Health Can Improve Well-being | Yoko Ambrosini | TEDxIowaStateUniversity

how many of you have a pet with a chronic debilitating disease today I want to show you how these two a disease in humans and disease in animals particularly in dogs are similar and how they can help each other in seeking new treatment options speaking of a family member at the chronic disease my dad has a colon cancer that's spread to the liver he's doing okay now after chemotherapy and to partial liver removal surgeries and my mom she's pre-diabetic so she hasn't seen the insulin yet but she's monitoring her weight and monitoring her eating habits so I can already see where my health is going in 20 to 30 years right but it's not just me it's everywhere everyone in this room is at risk at developing a chronic disease this shows a correlation between how rich we are how much healthcare we can afford and how long we live as you can see when we get richer we'll live longer and this is worldwide but when we get richer with a high income we tend to die from chronic diseases with little treatment options available rather than infectious diseases that are totally treatable and the World Health Organization shows that the major cause of death in high-income countries are such chronic diseases including heart disease Alzheimer's disease diabetes cancers and kidney disease these are all chronic debilitating diseases that we do not have curable drugs yet so what is our pharmaceutical research doing to help us with this situation it takes up to 12 years and up to 3 billion dollars to create one effective drug it takes very long time and a lot of money but after all these investment of time and money overall success rate of drug development is surprisingly only 11% this is a very inefficient model why we're doing such a poor job in drug development what barriers do we need to break to change this model this is a current flow of drug development and I propose two things to break this barrier one to use natural disease dog models our veterinary patients before human clinical trials and two to use intestinal cell models meanie gut that I'll explain in a second why we need intestinal cell model you might ask the vast majority of drug development is for oral medications which get absorbed first in the intestine also we know now that the intestine interacts with various organ system in the body through the bacterial ecosystem to the fat tissue deliver the intestine itself the brain the heart and the lungs this is why identifying the ideal intestinal model is important the overall goal with these two steps is to increase the efficiency rate in drug development from that 11% and ultimately to decrease time and cost required in this process the current major animal models and medical research and drug development are mice and zebrafish they reproduce fast and ethically less challenging to genetically manipulate to induce a disease these are powerful tools to study specific mechanism to advance science in motor cells from cancer cells are easy to grow an experimental setting and easy to generate data but are these data from these model applicable to a complex organism like humans body research says it's questionable we need animal models and cell models that we can directly apply to humans to increase efficiency and success rate in drug development increasing the translate ability of data is critical so what can bed interns do to increase the translate ability well when you hear veterinarians you might think of us giving vaccines to puppies and kittens and it is important part of our job but when our patients get older we also see heart disease Alzheimer's disease diabetes cancers inflammatory bowel disease and kidney disease these are all very similar to the chronic diseases in humans why can't we use our patients as a natural disease model not induce disease model and drug development or screening process that will help our patients particularly those who do not respond to conventional therapies and give them a chance to try new treatment options also when we talk about those chronic debilitating diseases many research studies are looking into intestinal health to modify the outcome diet modification for heart disease Alzheimer's disease kidney disease and even cancers majority of this is to modify the bacterial ecosystem in the gut which has been shown to affect our health tremendously like the gut health will work as a gas pedal or brake pedal in a disease process and when we look for translatable model for human intestinal bacterial ecosystem we know that the dogs has much more correlation than the mice particularly in dogs there's a 60% overlap with human intestinal bacteria while in mice it is less than 20% intestinal bacteria affects the intestinal health and because of these similarities dogs intestines are translatable model for humans so in our lab we recently established intestinal stem cell model intestinal organs from both healthy and diseased dogs through a less invasive procedure using an stomach camera on endoscopy healthy dogs donated their intestinal stem cells to serve as control and those cells help us investigate a drug or diet effect without harming the actual dogs dogs with intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or colon cancer donated their intestinal stem cells and again those cells help us investigate possible disease processes or appropriate treatment options without harming or manipulating the actual patients and I'm going to show you the intestinal organized growing the mini gut growing which does not look like the intestine at all but we have shown at the molecular level these intestinal organs contain all the surface components of small and large intestines and they closely mimic the structure and function of intestinal tissue now we are collaborating with a by engineer at University of Texas Austin dr. hyun jung kim and we are generating the very first dog gut chip this groundbreaking technology which is the size of a penny and this is a penny the actual chip is in texas but in this chip with multiple small chambers we can examine the interaction between intestinal cells bacteria and immune cells or other types of cells which was not possible before only with the true collaborative work with veterinarians physicians pharmacologist and by engineers this work has been possible this new tool is important because it allow us to study both humans and dogs chronic diseases that are thought to be modulated by intestinal health and this will help us screen the medications early in the drug development which might decrease the number of healthy dogs that are used in toxicity testing in drug development and one health initiative a research to benefit both veterinary and human patients can be accomplished as well the Food and Drug Administration is collaborating with us now for this great potential in our research so if your pet or your family member or yourself get diagnosed with one of those devastating diseases please remember that you're not alone sign up for clinical trials for yourself and future patients and think about one health initiative in demand for true collaborative research and effective drug development for your health thank you sign up for clinical trials

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