Nevada Weekly, University of Nevada, Reno, November 5, 1979


Terrie Nault: Good morning and welcome to another
edition of Nevada Weekly. I’m Terrie Nault with John Marschall. John, how are you feeling
this morning? John Marschall: I’m feeling a little plugged up, thank
you. Terrie Nault: You seem to be taking turns on that. I hope you’re feeling better.
John Marschall: I hope to be better by next time. Terrie Nault: What’s up first this morning?
John Marschall: Terrie, it’s a matter of life and breath, as a matter of fact. Terrie Nault: John, are we going to
be talking about smoking? John Marschall: We’re not going to be talking about smoking, but some
good friends of ours are. Dr. Joe Crowley, Vice President Bob Carell, Dr. Pacita Manolo, and northern Nevada Chairman of the Great American Smokeout, Bob Rusk.
We’re all going to be talking about the need to quit smoking on November 15th,
for that day or, perhaps, forever. Bob Rusk: It’s my pleasure to introduce Dr. Pacita Manolo Sears, who is a associate professor Doctor of Laboratory Medicine
at the University Medical School, also Dr. Robert Carrell, University Vice
President, pleasure to have you here with us today, and the President of the
University of Nevada-Reno, Dr. Joe Crowley. Joe, it’s a pleasure to have you here.
We have amongst us, a couple of ex-smokers, a recent pipe smoker, who’s
not sure whether he’s an ex-smoker or not, and a happy smoker, and between this
awesome group, I think we should be able to have a good general discussion of
what the Great American Smokeout is about. It certainly could draw the
attention to the general public as we have the past three year three years
to the idea of why anybody should consider, that’s a smoker,
giving up smoking. Going just briefly through some of the statistics, kind of
interesting, the world tobacco consumption, again from 1978, five million
tons were produced nationwide, which produced four point two trillion
cigarettes, which is a lot of cigarettes. Americans and those in the advanced
industrial nations smoke less because of high taxes and warnings that it is bad
for your health. The world’s emerging countries are smoking more American
cigarettes. Companies export under the government Food for
Peace Program. Throughout most of Africa, vendors are required by law to sell
cigarettes individually, rather than by the pack, and some of the isolated
Sudanese towns, for example, where a young man might have an income of two-hundred a year,
will spend ten cents for the right to smoke a cigarette. The Soviet Union, on
the other hand, takes the position that they’re very much against cigarette
smoking. They outlaw all advertising of cigarette smoke, of cigarettes, and they
restrict special areas where smokers are allowed to smoke. They insist that young
people and health officials not smoke. China is the world’s largest producer of
cigarettes, has only recently begun to take the first steps in discouraging
their young people from smoking. They, on the other hand, are in the export
business, and at a recent trade show, in the Philippines, they displayed twelve
different brands that they plan on exporting worldwide. The Surgeon
General’s report came out in 1964 and now, fifteen years later, the updated report
shows us some interesting things. Smoking, among men in the United States, has
decreased significantly to remain virtually the same among women and got
up sharply with teenage girls. In fact, in 1964, teenage girls
comprised about eight percent of their population, and today they’re with
teenage boys at about fifteen percent, so with thirty percent of our women smoking and forty
percent of the men, it’s interesting we might just get into the general
conversation here in discussion of the effect from the standpoint, clinically.
Dr. Manolo, I know that you’ve brought some slides and some information
regarding what a lung looks like and what it goes through, as compared to a
smoked nonsmoker. Patica Manolo: Yes, I thought that that if the individual is aware of the normal
structure of the lung, and what happens to some of this normal structure in heavy
smokers, that this would be quite helpful in stopping from smoking and here, I’ve
got the demonstration of a cross section of a lung. Normally, this windpipe
is lined by a certain type of epithelium, which has this brush like structure on
the surface, which we refer to as cilia and this acts as a filter for all the
foreign material and dust that are normally inhaled by this individual, and
when one coughs, all these materials that were caught and this cilia are expelled
from the lung and that prevents it from settling down in the lower portion of
the lung, and individuals who are heavy smokers, the first thing that is affected,
is this cilia, and so they’re lost and so, which means that you also lost the uh
filtering capacity of this epithelium Bob Rusk: And what about a smoker who decides, makes
the decision one day to give up smoking? Is that lung going to improve as a
nonsmoker? Pacita Manolo: Uh yes, the sequence of events, is after the loss of this cilia, eventually
the whole thickness of this epithelium is also lost and afterwards, in order to
compensate, there is a regeneration of this epithelium, but then the regenerated
epithelium is a different type of epithelium that the normal has. It is a
squamous type of epithelium and it stays like that and if this continues on, there
will be an uncontrolled increase in the number of cells and this is what gives
rise to the carcinoma. There is uncontrollable growth, both towards the
lumen of the pipes, the wind pipes and also towards the wall of the bronchus
and into the lung tissue, but… Bob Rusk: So, there is a regeneration? Pacita Manolo: Yes, that’s the bad part of it,
but then if you stop smoking, then these replacement, eventually, will be towards
the normal epithelium and this has been proven. I participated in a study in
Illinois, where in a cancer screening program, where we screened about a
thousand heavy smokers, no symptoms, no signs of tumor, and then by chest x-ray
and we just collected sputum from this patient and about ninety-five percent of the heavy
smokers showed some kind of change in the cells that were extruded from this
windpipes, but then the same patients were followed through, afterwards, and
they the ones that stopped smoking, showed the normal epithelium,
afterwards. Bob Rusk: What period of time afterwards did that… Pacita Manolo: Uh, well and nor according to
statistics, it takes about like about from about three to ten years.
You may show improvement depending on what the type of injury it had done and,
initially. Bob Rusk: Okay, now this is a bit of shaking news that I’ll display on this
group. You probably didn’t know who the nonsmoker of the year was, this past year.
It was Prince Charles from England, and the reason for that was, that this was
awarded by the National Society of Non-smokers. He refused to allow his
fellow guests to smoke until the end of a recent dinner party. Now we’ll give him
all the applaud its necessary, for those of us that are non-smokers,
but bringing us right down to the bottom line of what we’re talking about here,
we’ve got a happy smoker in the midst. Dr. Crowley, give us your feelings
on on how you deal with smokers and non-smokers? Joe Crowley: I’m not sure that exactly
about to describe me as a happy smoker. It would be appropriate to say that I
enjoy smoking, which is why it has been so difficult for me to quit. I can recall
a period in my life when I was a heavy smoker and an unhappy smoker at the same
time, and several times over, the course of the years, made an effort to to quit
the habit and succeeded for periods of four months to six months to a year and
eventually rationalized my way back into it and finally, decided, I guess about
eighteen years ago, that if I was going to smoke I was not going to smoke very
much and, so cut down to oh, I think at that time three or four cigarettes a day.
Over the years, I guess, I have gradually worked my way up back to seven or eight.
Most days, there are some days when I exceed that. But those are cigarettes, I
guess you could say, that I enjoy. Previously, I would smoke every hour on
the hour, every half hour around a half hour, or what just couldn’t wait to to
light up, but didn’t enjoy most of them, so it’s only in that sense you could
describe me as a as a happy smoker. I’d be delighted to quit and I have told
myself and my children who pressure me relentlessly, that one day soon I will
and I still say that, whether it will happen or not. I I don’t know, but I
certainly do understand that it’s unhealthy, that in part, I guess, is what
has led me to cut down drastically, but that in itself may be in danger. I mean,
you may feel that since you don’t smoke much, it’s not dangerous for you. I think,
no doubt, to the extent you smoke, it is it is dangerous. Bob Rusk: Dr. Carrell what’s uh… Bob Carrell: I’m
just looking at Dr. Manolo’s series of pictures and
wondering what state my lungs are in. I think I smoked a pipe for at least forty years, whenever I sat
down, but I never I never felt that I was addicted to smoking and I’m not,
obviously, I was in one way or another and maybe still am, although with me,
it’s it’s a at least a considerable measure of a nervous habit and I I have
at least a recipe for stopping. I don’t know if this is going to work, but I picked
up a flu virus about about a month or six weeks ago and and couldn’t say I
didn’t feel like smoking and, curiously, just haven’t started again and I don’t
know that I will. One of the the side advantages, quite a part of whatever it’s
doing or not doing to my lungs, is that I discovered that quit burning holes in my
trousers, I don’t have to empty tobacco and ashes out of my pockets every
evening, and and there’s some advantage in not having to collect all the
materials all the time. Bob Rusk: Have there been any comments from your family, friends? Bob Carrell: Uh oh yes.
Well, in general, everyone tells me how great it is that I’ve made this
great sacrifice and, the fact is, that I haven’t thought much about it at all. Pacita Manolo: I
understand. I understand that it only takes one cigarette for the smoker who
just quit to get back into the smoking habits again. Is that true? Bob Carrell: I don’t know.
I’ve never smoked cigarettes. Joe Crowley: Well, in a way it is. when I quit and I did, as I
said, several times. Eventually, I would I would pick something up, a cigar or a
pipe and because those were not as dangerous and I didn’t inhale them and,
so I would smoke them for a while. This was the typical quitting experience for
me. I would get to the point, usually ended up with pipes because I just
couldn’t tolerate cigars nor could my wife nor my clothes, and I thought I
would end up with pipes, which have a pleasant smell about them, I guess, and I
would reach a point where I would begin to inhale the pipe tobacco and then I
would say to myself, boy that really is dangerous because inhaling pipe tobacco
is worse than inhaling cigarette tobacco, so I’m far better off if I go back to
cigarettes and that was the typical pattern. I would then light up a
cigarette. It would taste perfectly awful, the first one, but the the the urge was
reinvigorated and the first would inevitably lead to the second which
would still taste bad but not as bad as the first and the third was better than
the second and so on. I have no way of knowing whether my experience is typical,
but, I think, it likely that the first one you take after a long period of
abstaining is not going to delight you too much, but it does do something to you
psychologically or or internally, that leads you to the next one. Bob Rusk: This is the
the year the child. We’ve heard that many times over and, certainly, the most
successful non-smokers, the one that never starts. I don’t think I’ve ever
talked to somebody that’s really serious about their health and well-being. It
doesn’t say much as you say, I really would like to give it up, and they have
mixed degrees of success in accomplishing that. Bob Carrell: Mark Twain, remember,
said it was easy, done it hundred times. Bob Rusk: Exactly,
so with the well, let’s just start right at the beginning and let me review just,
there’s a good little pamphlet. In fact, out at the American Cancer Society has
answers to the most often asked questions about cigarette smoking and
lung cancer. It’s available here at the local agency, but they they point out,
here, the dangers for women while pregnant, which is it’s earth-shaking,
just a couple of things. Recent evidence linked smoking, while smoking while
pregnant to stillbirths, increased mortality among
newborns, low birth weight is apparently a standard sort of thing, you can find a
child being smaller at the point of coming into the world,
nicotine restricts blood vessels and breathing movements of unborn babies and
women who smoke while carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen level of their blood.
So, you know, this is serious. There is no question of that and, yet, it isn’t it
hard to see a lady that’s obviously pregnant smoking a cigarette and it’s
just as if they must not be aware. It’s difficult to deal with that. Children, in
the early years in school now, your experience at home with your kids coming
home and expressing themselves. I see that in my kids and their peers, really, they
give as much problem to parents who smoke as anybody. I think it’s a good
healthy trend, so it has been a delightful opportunity for me and I
appreciate very much the three of you taking the time to join us today to
discuss a subject that, Joe, you’re representing seventy-five million people here
today and the rest of us in the sixty percent or so group, will continue to
deal with this problem and I think we’re making progress in the area that most
people agree and that is, that we can smoke less and we’re better for it. Thank
you very much. Terrie Nault: Nevada’s First Lady, Kathy List, recently spoke to a local
suroptimist group about her role as chairperson of Nevada’s International
Year of the Child campaign. She talked about what was going on in the
International Year of the Child nationwide and explained that the major
concern throughout the country, is the subject of child abuse. John Marschall: And, we have
certainly sufficient reason in this state to be concerned about the topic
because statistics tell us that Nevada has the highest rate of child abuse of
any state in the Union. Nevada Weeky wanted to address that
issue and brought together some concerned citizens, a pediatrician, a
Juvenile Court Master, Assemblyman, and professor of journalism.
Nevada Weekly reporter, Norma Lindaburgh, introduces them. Norma Lindaburgh: Steve Coulter,
Assemblyman and UNR professor of journalism, discussed the role of local
state and national programs dealing with child abuse with Charles Springer,
Juvenile Court Master of Washoe County, and Dr. Robert Tim Benzyl, pediatrician
and professor in the School of Public Health in the Department of Pediatrics
at the University of Minnesota. Steve Coulter: Doctor, Nevada ranks fourth in the nation per
capita on the number of child abuse cases. In the last two years, the number
of child abuse cases have doubled in the state to over about twenty-two hundred, I believe. Is this
indicative of the trend nationally? Robert Tim Benzyl: Yes, throughout the United
States are more and more cases being reported to child abuse.
The latest national data we have, is 1977. About three quarters of a million children have
been reported for suspected child abuse and neglect and I think the experts, who
look at this, say that it is both better reporting because of laws. There is a
considerable amount of data that says there’s more abuse cases because there’s
more stress on families. Every time the country goes to a recession, this puts more
economic stress and some of that frustration may come out upon the
children. Steve Coulter: Of course, historically, child abuses is nothing new. It goes back a
long time. Robert Tim Benzyl: That’s correct. One of my special interests, is looking at the historical
roots, and the last four thousand years, in Western culture, has been a history,
really, of abuse and neglect of children. We’ve moved out of an era of infanticide
for parents, actually, and condoned by society, tell their children to return or
abandoned. We saw a society respond by orphanages, care institutions. We’ve
gone through a period of child labor in this country, that put children to work
and finally children got more rights in those areas, and it’s kind of interesting that
we’re in a current phase, really starting last hundred years of being aware in
society about abuse and neglect and, particularly, since
1961, when the term “battered child syndrome” was coined by Dr. Kemp and
Denver, kind of brought a lot of public awareness to the issue. We created, in a
way, a new kind of awareness in society that there was an issue called child
abuse in play. Steve Coulter: Of course, child abuse is not just a
problem of the family, it’s a social problem and that’s where the court
system comes in. Mr. Springer, you are the Juvenile Court Master in Washoe County.
How do you view the situation from your perspective? Charles Springer: What I see, is a situation
that’s completely consistent with what Dr. Tim Benzyl is saying. I’m getting, now,
where I can identify children who are accused of violent crimes before I even
read their social history. I know that these children have been abused. have
been neglected. have been consciously rejected. I think there’s one point that
is worthy of emphasis and that is, that we’re not necessarily restricting
ourselves to physical abuse. Physical abuse has definite consequences. It
teaches violence. It lowers self-esteem. It makes it difficult for a child to
have a trusting relationship with anyone. It makes them resist authority,
but this isn’t the only part of it. A child who is rejected and constantly put
down, verbal abuse emotionally abused children, have pretty much the same type
of reaction and, one way of putting it, is that we know how to create violent
criminals in this country and we’re doing a very good job of doing it and I
might add this, that we’re doing it on an expanded level, that we seem to be
creating more of these children, who in turn, become parents, who again abuse
their children and we have to do something to interrupt this flow, this
cycle and if we don’t, we’re going to have more serious social problems than we have now.
Steve Coulter: One of the interesting statistics, it’s come up in hearings before the Nevada
legislative subcommittee studying child abuse, is it there is an increased
frequency of parents being abused by the children. They abused their children when
they were very young, the children grow up to become teenagers and end up
abusing the parents and I think there’s a statistic, like two thousand parents each year
are killed by their own children. Charles Spring: They’ve learned violence, the old expression, the
father saying to his ten-year-old son, I’ll teach you to beat up on your
six-year-old brother. Well, that’s exactly what he’s doing, is teaching violence and I
think, from my perspective, this type of violence, I’m talking about excessive
abuse, physically and emotionally. I am seeing a lot more of it than I would
have thought was present, had I not had the opportunity to be sitting on the
juvenile court. Robert Tim Benzyl: I think our dimensions of it are changing constantly, which is
confusing to the lay public, is that we have a [inaudible] called child abuse, which is
now related to the whole question of battered wife syndrome and battered
husbands. People are looking at the elderly, the
fact that the elderly can become victims of abuse or verbal abuse, also, so that we
have a widening dimension, now. Some people call this whole field inter
family violence. It takes place in the family and so the other big issue, is the
sexual area. We’ve talked about long term outcomes, physically, I think that people,
there’s a huge toll we take psychologically. People are starting to
correlate one or thirty percent of the population mentally ill and, again, it goes back to
these some of these same factors of trusting other people, knowing what’s
right and what’s wrong, how do you behave in a society. They may
all have common roots in abuse and neglect of children. Steve Coulter: And, Nevada, one
statistic has come that a hundred and forty children that are in the two state
children’s homes, twenty percent of those have been sexually or physically abused,
which would indicate the longest trend. Charles Springer: I would think the figure would be higher.
Steve Coulter: So, what’s the solution? Robert Tim Benzyl: What’s the solution? Very tough question.
Where I’m coming from, is a public health approach, that prevention is better than
cure. I think that public awareness to the issues, public discussion of the
issues, support services to intervene in those families that have problems, a
society giving people permission to say I am an abuser. I need help, It’s like AA.
We have groups called “Parents Anonymous”, or cope. How do we help parents to take
advantage of these kind of self-help groups? How the systems relate. How do social services relate and I think one of the important things that
needs to be mentioned, that most of the case reports in a community come from
friends, relatives, and neighbors. They know what’s going on inside the family,
that the Welfare Department. There is a number you can call if you have a
concern and I think that’s important to realize, you know, to bring it out in the
open and deal it, same way we dealt with alcohol. We didn’t keep alcohol in the
closet, we brought it out, we discussed it, we developed treatment programs and
preventive programs, so I think alcohol model is a good model to look at for a
community and there’s a whole wide range of services that need to be coordinated
within the community. Steve Coulter: Saying coming out of the closet, that’s not an easy thing
to do. How does a person say, hey I’m a bad parent. I don’t know how to take care
of my children and come out publicly. Robert Tim Benzyl: Well, it’s what we did with alcohol. I mean, if you
look back fifty years ago, nobody would say I’m having trouble with alcohol or I’m
having any kinds of problems and, we know, we rounded that corner and I do see
parents, now, who do have permission to say, I’ve had some difficulty. I think the
general society cannot punish parents. I mean, if we take the attitude of
punishing parents, that there’s a lot of professionals, including myself, who say,
well how much am I going to report cases if our physician is not one of support,
generally, of support. Now, you cross the line where the abuse goes bad and there
needs to be, you know, further legal intervention, obviously, in families, but
in general, most of the cases of child abuse and neglect can be handled within
the family with good support services. Steve Coulter: Mr. Springer, how do you see a problem? Charles Springer: Well,
I see I would trace a lot of this to ignorance on the part of parents, of the
terrible toll that’s being taken by the abuse of children and not only are we
creating criminals, we’re creating a lot of maladjusted unhappy people and I
prefer to think that if a lot of these parents knew how destructive they were
being to their own children, they they might change.
I believe with Dr. Tim Benzyl, first in prevention by education, by early
intervention. I believe that we should use the mass media, television, maybe
simulcast so everyone has to pay attention,
maybe parenting courses, but now, we finally have the means to know the
terrible mistakes that we’re making in child raising and I don’t think that
this knowledge is being adequately communicated to the public, and I would
like to see at least that done. That’s that’s feasible. That doesn’t cost a lot
of money. Steve Coulter: If you have information dealing with child abuse in Washoe County, the
number to call will be seven eight five five six one one. That’s the Washoe
County Welfare Department. Terrie Nault: Two lectures on November 13th and December 11th also
address the topic of child abuse and they are sponsored by the Center for
Religion and Life and the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court
judges. Both lectures will be held at the Judicial College Building. Bob Rusk: I’m Bob Rusk,
Chairman of the Great American Smokeout November 15. I’d like to introduce you to
my friend, Oscar. I think it’s quite obvious that Oscar would never quit. On
the other hand, it’s my pleasure to introduce to you the mayors of Reno and
Sparks, Mayor’s Bennett and Player. They’ve agreed to join us November 15th
by giving up smoking, signing the pledge, and throwing their cigarettes out. Won’t
you the smoking public of Washoe County consider November 15, throwing out your
weed and accepting the challenge of no more smoking? John Marschall: We hope you join us again,
two weeks from this morning, same time, same place, KOLO TV – Reno. Terrie Nault: John and I wish you a
beautiful day. [Music]

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