Institutionalized Racism | Sociology | Chegg Tutors

hey guys my name is Alex and I'm a tutor here at chug tutors I'm also a junior American Studies major at Yale University and mostly a tutor in American literature and film however today I'm gonna be talking about the sociological term institutionalized racism so everyone was probably familiar with the term racism however a lot of people get hung up with this term institutionalized so when we when we say institutionalized we're talking about formal institutions or governing bodies that have power socially culturally politically in a society and I'm mostly going to speak about institutionalized racism and racism in the United States because that's more my background so institutionalized racism a formal definition would be policies procedures legislation and practices of institutions that have a disproportionately negative effect on racial minorities access to goods services and opportunities so this differs from the person-to-person individualized racism that most people are familiar with individualized racism is where person a does something that discriminates against person B or informal group a discriminates against another racial group usually individualized racism is very easy to kind of pinpoint because you see an individual acting you know their intent you know their motivations whereas institutionalized racism isn't always so easy to pinpoint which leads me to my next point of explicit versus implicit institutionalized racism explicit institutionalized racism our policies and legislation that overtly state and specifically single out a racial minority and the goal of the legislation is to negatively affect their lives and cause an inequality so example of these could be the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 or Chinese to immigrate to the United States another example would be the Indian Removal Act of 1830 another specific legislation that singled out Native Americans and forced them to leave their native lands another example of this obviously is slavery which explicitly stated that whites had the power to enslave African Americans until 1865 so another more recent in the 20th century explicit and example of explicit and institutionalized racism would be Jim Crow laws which were enacted in 1877 and continued effectively until 1965 so these Segur these Jim Karla's segregated public spaces so african-americans could not could not eat in the same restaurants use the same public facility is your public transportation and even government jobs were segregated and schools so implicit institutionalize racism is harder to pinpoint because while the legislation or the procedures of the institution do not specifically single out a racial minority the effect of the legislation is that they negatively and disproportionately affect their lives so some example of the some examples of these could be grandfather clauses which were laws local laws passed in the wake of the emancipation of the slaves which barred which were intent the intent was to bar African Americans from voting and while it didn't explicitly say them the law which stated that in order to vote your grant your grandfather had to be able to vote before the so before the Civil War made it so that newly freed slaves whose grandfather's were obviously enslaved also and could not vote could not vote in these elections even though they had the constitutional right poll taxes and literacy tests were in the same vein and that they disproportionately affected African Americans who were newly free who did not have money and were oftentimes illiterate so they could not pass these tests or pay these taxes and thus could not vote another example could be SB 1070 which was a controversial Arizona piece of legislation which basically stated that police officers had the right to force any any person that they arrested apprehended or held on account of any crime forced them to show documentation proving that they were an American citizen and while SB 1070 did not single out any racial minority many people people feared that the law implicitly enforced racial stereotyping as police officers could now based on no real criteria except for race force Latinos and people of Mexican descent to prove their citizenship lastly an example of implicit institutionalized racism could be mass incarceration of African American men Michelle Alexander in her book the new Jim Crow talks extensively about this and she states that all of the data the current data does not show that African Americans commit more crime in fact crimes are mostly committed by white males however if you look at the racial makeup of the United States prisons they are predominantly African American so she argues that this mass and car sir incarceration of African Americans is an example of how while police practices do not explicitly say that they should target african-american men that is actually what is happening and that is why we have this mass incarceration so as you can see these implicit examples are a little bit harder to define and also oftentimes these legislation like in the mass incarceration example do not have the intent of disproportionately affecting the racial minorities original minority groups lives however that is the effect that they have or that is the effect they have in practice so the relationship between these two is very connected as oftentimes these institutionalized racist policies help to enforce stereotypes and like racial tropes that fuel individualized racist actions so why study institutionalized racism well since the Civil Rights Act or since the civil rights movement these racist policies have become more implicit than explicit as with Voting Rights Acts in the 1860s all citizens could have the right to vote and many civil rights legislation after that and the workplace helped to dismantle these explicit procedures of racism however they do still exist in these kind of implicit and vague realms so by studying institutionalized racism we can further identify these harder to see examples of racism in society and once we identify them we can have better tools to dismantle them and to call them out in change legislation so that they do not include this type of institutionalized race in their language and thus provided equal opportunities for all no matter what racial identity so that is my lesson on institutionalized racism and thank you so much

8 thoughts on “Institutionalized Racism | Sociology | Chegg Tutors

  1. 2:32 Hate to break it to you, but the largest slave owners who were engineers of the slave trade were Jews. Stop blaming 'whites' and being brainwashed by their propaganda, which is clearly part of your curriculum there at Yale.

  2. This was incredibly helpful since I plan to discuss racism in my first official academic research essay. Thank you

  3. Is there anything in the past decade that shows that America still has Institutionalized Racism? Thanks for answering.

  4. SB 1070 was created to combat illegal immigration, not promote racism. Yes, it does implicitly allow racial profiling, but it doesn't legalize the wrongful treatment of non-whites. The law's goal is to target criminals who have entered the country illegally, while thousands of immigrants have put forth effort and time to enter the country legally.

    The incarceration rate that he is citing is correct, however it doesn't take into consideration multiple-time offenders. According to those statistics, there is something called the "hierarchy rule". This rules states that The FBI requires law enforcement agencies to apply an offense hierarchy rule when reporting arrests. That is, if a person is arrested and charged with multiple offenses (e.g., robbery and possession of a weapon), the arrest is reported to the UCR as a single arrest for the most serious charge (in this case, robbery). As a result, more arrests are made for most crimes (e.g., weapon law violations) than are
    reflected in the UCR statistics. This skews the statistics which means that you can't conclude that black people are arrested more and spend more time in prison. In statistics, you cannot draw conclusions from data without considering all variables. Statistical disparity doesn't equate to causality. So his logic of institutional racism is invalid.

    Why not also discuss that fact that black people make only 13% of the American population, yet they make up 50% of all the murders in the country. About 90% of all black deaths are at the hands of other black people.

    What about the fact that since 1960, single mother rates in black women has risen from 20% to over 70% in 2015? 70% of black children growing up without fathers.

    Nah nobody wants to talk about that when it comes to the black American community, only institutional racism.


  5. Dear White people that have white guilt

    As a hispanic I'd like to ask you to please stop allowing people to make you feel like you've done something wrong. You are in no way responsible for the actions of your ancestors. Plus often times minorities like to point to out that white people enslaved their ancestors, but they forget that America had a civil war where a lot of white people fought and gave their life to end slavery!

    This whole argument that white people are the only people that can be racist is the biggest load of sh*t ever! White people can definitely be racist, but to suggest that ONLY white people can be racist is ridiculous.
    Also the argument that only whites can be racist because they have the backing of some large powerful institution makes it sound like minorities have no power in society which is false. Our president is black and he has the power to pardon people that are currently serving prison sentences. Now imagine that if before he left office he pardoned 1,000 black people and zero white people solely on the premise of skin color. Would that not be racist? By no means do I think Obama is racist, I'm just pointing out that some minorities in our country DO have institutionalized power and CAN use it to oppress whites.

  6. institutionalize racism is made up. An institution has no will of its own it is controlled by people. So a person can be whatever and a group can be whatever, but an institution can't be anything.

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