According to the most authentic estimations this world of ours came into being 4.5 billion years ago as a result of Bigbang Life on this planet began 1.5 billion years ago After many evolutionary processes A specie named ‘homo sapiens’ came into being two hundred thousand years ago Also known as human beings In these thousands of years human beings went through many changes and civilizations Until the recent time,
the twenty first century A.D. These differences within the specie started to define us as different group as well as different individuals In a survey, we asked some students
‘who are you?’ Human society has been classified into many types in history. The dominant classification of the time affects our opinions about what we are! The overwhelming humanism in the global discourse and The Islamic basis of our country affected the opinions of the students in the survey! Here, we are going to have an overview of different classifications of human society Here, we are going to have an overview of different classifications of human society But Before we start, lets have a look on what people think about the classification of human society. These classifications are of two major types, First, the evolutionary classification Which classifies the society as process of history. This type is inspired from the concept of evolution of Charles Darwin The other type is a-historic according to which society can be classified irrespective of historical process. Gender differences was the first division of the human society due to biological differences roles, statuses and expectations became different for both the genders. Even in Europe, , till the mid nineteenth century, spheres of both genders remained different. Until, the rise of feminist movements Religions also divided the societies, Firstly, on the basis of their followers and the infidels, (those who do not believe in their religion). Secondly, the internal stratification of different types. For example, the caste system of Hindus. Later, Later the geographical divides, the racial differences, the ethnical diversity created differences. The holocaust, the genocides, apartheid and many other riots fill the history based on these divides. It persists even in the most developed and liberal states of the world. Ibn-e-Khaldun was the fourteenth century North african Arab historian He is claimed as the fore runner of modern disciplines of sociology and demography, Ibn-e-khaldun categorized society into two categories Rural and Urban, Rural society, according to him is the society which live far away from the centre of the population and according him is that society that is disorganized and convective, since do not like changes, however they are hardy frugal and uncorrupting moral freedom loving and self reliant and some make excellent fighters , in addition they have a strong sense of social solidarity , Urban society According to him is that society living in town or cities it is populated compared to rural communities , the houses are close to each other, Urban people like changes more civilized sophisticated, artistic presentation
consumer and polite They tend to have a sense of togetherness Giambattista Vico was an Italian political philosopher and historian recognized as a great intellectual of the Age of Enlightenment. Vico argues in his book Scienza Nuova, (New Science), that civilization develops in a recurring cycle of three ages the divine, the heroic, and the human. Each age exhibits distinct political and social features and can be characterized by master tropes or figures of language. The giganti of the divine age rely on metaphor to compare, and thus comprehend, human and natural phenomena. In the heroic age, metonymy and synecdoche support the development of feudal or monarchic institutions embodied by idealized figures. The final age is characterized by popular democracy and reflection via irony; in this epoch, the rise of rationality leads to barbarism of reflection, and civilization descends once more into the divine era. Taken together, the recurring cycle of three ages common to every nation – constitutes for Vico a ideal eternal history. Shah wali ullah of subcontinent was a 18th century reformer, educationaist, scholar, political activist and author of many books. In his famous books ‘Hujjatullahil Balighah’ (the coclusive argument from God) and ‘albudoor ul bazighah’ (the bright moons) He presented an evolutionary classification of society with the heading of Irtifaqat. Evolution had never remained alien in the Islamic literature. Classic Islamic thinkers (such as rumi) often mention the evolution through the minerals to plant kingdom to animal kingdom to human beings. Shah wali ullah discussed four stages or four irtefaqaat In the first stage, He discusses a primitive society stressing over basic needs without any culture and civilization The second stage develops culture and civilization with more efficient and aesthetic ways of getting the needs fulfilled. At the third stage a local government is formed with some basic institutions and essential pillars of state. On the last stage, An international government is formed with Khalifa as his head who manages under his rule all the local governments. Auguste Comte was a French philosopher and founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He offered an account of social evolution , proposing that society undergoes three phases in its quest for the truth according to a general “ law of three stages”. That were; The Theological Stage. The Metaphysical Stage and The Positive Stage. The Theological Stage was in which man`s place in society and society’s restrictions upon man were reference to God. people believe that all the phenomena of nature are the creation of the divine or supernatural Men and children failed to discover the natural causes of various phenomena and hence attributed them to a supernatural or divine power. Metaphysical stage refers to explanation by impersonal abstract concepts. People often tried to believe that God is an abstract being. They believe that an abstract power or force guides and determines events in the world. The nature of inquiry was legal and rational in nature. The Positive stage, also known as the scientific stage refers to scientific explanation based on observation, , experiment, and comparison. Positivism is a purely intellectual way of looking at the world as well, it emphasizes observation and classification of data and facts. This is the highest, most evolved behavior according to Comte. Emile Durkheim, the first to use the term, “sociology” to describe his work, and, the first to apply positivist approach, to sociological research classified the society, according to the social bonding between the members of the society. He gave a concept of Mechanical, and, Organic Solidarity. In mechanical society, Social bonds are typical of, small pre-industrial societies, based on the perception that, people are interpersonally connected, and, have strong solidarity. In organic societies, Social bonds are typical of, large industrial societies, based on the high interdependence of people, who engage in specialized activities with hard boil relations and atomization. A similar classification was presented by the German sociologist, Ferdinand Tonnies. He distinguished between two types of Social Groups; Gemeinschaft & Gesellschaft. Gemeinschaft often translated as a community refers to groupings based on a feeling of togetherness. Gesellschaft often translated as a society on the other hand , refers to groups that are sustained by an instrumental goal. Lewis Henry Morgan, American ethnologist, and, a principal founder of scientific anthropology, is known especially for his, comprehensive theory of social evolution. It is very similar to the classification of Gerhard Lenski. He said that society had progressed, from a hunting-and-gathering to a stage (which he denoted by the term “savagery”) to a stage of settled agriculture (“barbarism”) and then on to an urban society, possessing a more advanced agriculture, ( which he called “civilization”). He illustrated, these developmental stages with examples drawn from various culture. He divided, and, defined the stages by technological inventions, such as use of fire, bow, pottery in the savage era; domestication of animals, agriculture, and metalworking in the barbarian era; and, development of the alphabet and writing in the civilization era. The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Karl Marx, classified all the societies of the world, a-historically into the ruling classes, (known as the Bourgeoisie), that controls the mean production, and, working classes, (known as Proletariat), that work on these means by selling their labor for wages. Who, according to him, are the oppressors and the oppressed, respectively. Karl Marx presents an historical evolutionary classification of society based on the means of production. He said that society has evolved from Primitive communism, Asiatic mode of production, Antique or ancient mode of production and Feudalism to Capitalism in his era, and will finally evolve into Socialism or communism. Human society of primitive communism is seen as organized in traditional tribe structures, typified by shared values and consumption of the entire social product. As no permanent surplus product is produced, there is also no possibility of a ruling class coming into existence. The Asiatic mode of production is said to be the initial form of pre-feudal class society, where a small group extracts social surplus through violence aimed at settled or unsettled band communities within a domain. Exploited labour is extracted as forced corvee labour during a slack period of the year (allowing for monumental construction such as the pyramids and the Chinese Great Wall). The primary property form of this mode is the direct religious possession of communities and all those within them. The ruling class of this society is generally a semi-theocratic aristocracy which claims to be the incarnation of gods on earth. The forces of production associated with this society include basic agricultural techniques, massive construction and storage of goods for social benefit. Similar to the Asiatic mode, but differentiated in that the form of property is the direct possession of individual human beings. the ruling class usually avoids the more outlandish claims of being the direct incarnation of a god, and prefers to be the descendants of gods, or seeks other justifications for its rule. The forces of production associated with this mode include advanced (two field) agriculture, the extensive use of animals in agriculture, and advanced trade networks. The primary form of property is the possession of land in reciprocal contract relations the possession of human beings as peasants or serfs is dependent upon their being entailed upon the land. The ruling class is usually a nobility or aristocracy. The primary forces of production include highly complex agriculture with the addition of non-human and non-animal power devices (clockwork, wind-mills) and the intensification of specialization in the crafts. The ruling class is the bourgeoisie, which exploits the proletariat. Capitalism may produce one class (bourgeoisie) who possess the means of and another class who possess only their own labour power, which they must sell in order to survive. The key forces of production include the overall system of modern production its supporting structures of bureaucracy, and the modern state, and above all finance capital. Late capitalism is characterized by consumerism and financialization, a process whereby “making money”, literally, becomes the dominant industry —both of these practices are a means to sustain the flow and accumulation of capital. The socialist mode of production is the post-capitalist economic system system that emerges when the accumulation of capital is no longer sustainable due to falling rates of profit in (real) production. A socialist society would consist of production being carried out, organized in a manner to directly satisfy human needs, with the working-class cooperatively or publicly owning the means of production. Herbert Spencer proposed a basis for distinguishing between types of societies. In this scheme the focus is on the type of internal regulation within societies. the two types of socities were,what he called “militant” and “industrial” societies. Militant society, structured around relationships of hierarchy and obedience, was simple and undifferentiated. Industrial society, on other hand, based on voluntary, contractually assumed social obligations, was complex and differentiated. Gerhard Lenski, the sociologist of our century, presented, a technologically determined, evolutionary classification of the society. He proposed that, social change is determined, by technological advancements. The four stages, he presented were, Hunting and Gathering society. Horticultural and Pastoral society. Agrarian society, and, Industrial society. In our time, the recent and coming ages are anticipated according to the developing and predicted technologies. Just as Gerharld Lenski proposed Advancements in industries and research in artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, nanotechnology, aero sciences, big data analytics etc, suggest post industrial age and
information age after these ages. We can’t all be same, we have differences, we will remain classified into different sections, no matter where the society goes as the result of further social change. But lets promote, unity in diversity, with, love and harmony.