How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.


Is there a border we will never cross? Are there places we will never reach,
no matter how hard we try? Turns out there are. Even with science fiction technology,
we are trapped in our pocket of the Universe. How can that be?
And, how far can we go? We live in a quiet arm of the Milky Way;
A spiral galaxy of average size, – about 100,000 light years across – consisting of billions of stars, gas clouds,
dark matter, black holes, neutron stars, and planets, with a supermassive
black hole in the galactic centre.>From afar, our galaxy seems dense, but
in reality, it consists, mostly, of empty space. With our current technology, sending a human
to the closest star, would take thousands of years. So, our galaxy is pretty big. The Milky Way is not alone, though. Along with the Andromeda galaxy,
and more than fifty dwarf galaxies, it’s a part of “The Local Group”; a region of space about ten million light years
in diameter. It is one of the hundreds of galaxy groups in
the “Laniakea Supercluster”, which, itself is only one of millions
of superclusters, that make up the observable universe. Now, let’s assume, for a moment, that
we have a glorious future; humanity becomes a type three civilisation, does not get wiped out by aliens, and develops interstellar travel based on
our current understanding of physics. In this best case scenario,
how far could we possibly go? Well; the local group. It’s the biggest structure that humanity
will ever be a part of. While it’s certainly huge, the local group
accounts for only 0.00000000001 % of the observable universe. Let this number sink in for a moment. We are limited to a hundred billionth of
a percent of the observable universe. The simple fact that there is actually
a limit for us, and that there is so much universe that we will never
be able to touch, is kind of frightening. Why can’t we go further? Well, it all has to do with
the nature of nothing. Nothing, or empty space, isn’t empty
but has energy intrinsic to itself; so-called “quantum fluctuations”. On the smaller scale, there is
constant action, particles and antiparticles appearing and annihilating themselves. You can imagine this quantum vacuum as
a bubbling part: with denser, and less dense regions. Now, let’s go back 13.8 billion years
when the fabric of space consisted of nothing at all. Right after the big bang, in an event known
as cosmic inflation, the observable universe expanded from the size of a marble to
trillions of kilometres, in fractions of a second. This sudden stretching of the universe was
so fast and extreme, that all those quantum fluctuations were
stretched as well, and subatomic distances became
galactic distances, with dense and less dense regions. After inflation, gravity began to pull
everything back together. At the largest scale, the expansion was
too quick and powerful to overcome but in smaller scales,
gravity emerged victorious. So, over time, the denser regions,
or pockets, of the universe, grew into groups of galaxies, like the one
we live in today. Only stuff inside our pocket – The Local Group –
is bound to us gravitationally. But wait, what is the problem then? Why can’t we travel from our pocket,
to the next one? Here, dark energy makes everything complicated. About six billion years ago,
dark energy took over. It’s basically an invisible force or effect,
that causes, and speeds up the expansion of the universe. We don’t know why, or what dark energy is,
but we can observe its effect clearly. In the early universe, there were larger,
cold spots around the local group, that grew into clusters with thousands
of galaxies. We are surrounded by a lot of stuff,
but none of those structures and galaxies outside of the local group are gravitationally
bound to us. So the more the universe expands,
the larger the distance between us and other gravitational pockets becomes. Over time, dark energy will push the rest
of the universe away from us, causing all the other clusters, galaxies, and
groups to eventually become unreachable. The next galaxy group is already millions
of light years away, but all of them are moving away from us,
at speeds we can’t, ever, hope to match. We could leave the local group, and then
fly through intergalactic space, into the darkness, but we would never
arrive anywhere. While we will become more and more stranded,
the local group will become more tightly bound, and merge together to form one giant elliptical galaxy,
with the unoriginal name “Milkdromeda” in a few billion years. But it becomes even more depressing: at some point, the galaxies outside
the local group, will be so far away, that they will be too faint to detect, and the few
photons that do make it to us, will be shifted to such long wavelengths,
that they will be undetectable. Once this happens, no information outside
of the local group will be able to reach us. The universe will recede from view. It will appear to be dark and empty
in all directions, forever. A being born in the far future in
Milkdromeda, will think there is nothing but its own
galaxy in the entire universe. When they look far into empty space, they
will only see more emptiness and darkness; they won’t be able to see the
cosmic background radiation, and they won’t be able to learn about
the Big Bang. They will have no way of knowing
what we know today; the nature of the expanding universe,
where it began, and how it will end. They will think the universe is static and eternal. Milkdromeda will be an island in the darkness,
slowly getting darker and darker. But still, with its trillions of stars,
the local group is certainly large enough for humanity. After all, we still haven’t figured out
how to leave our solar system, and we have billions of years
to explore our galaxy. We have the incredible luck to exist at
the perfect moment in time to see, not only our future but also our
most distant past. As isolated and remote as the local group is,
we can perceive the entire universe, grand and spectacular as it is right now. This video was sponsored by SquareSpace.com/nutshell Do you feel isolated in a humongous universe? Why not set up a website or blog
and share your thoughts with other humanoids around you? Squarespace lets you do that
with easy-to-understand tools very quickly and without any knowledge of web design. You can also use the code “NUTSHELL” to save
10 % and support Kurzgesagt in making more videoes about our place
in the universe. Thanks so much for the help with the video
to Ethan Siegel. Follow his astronomy blog here. You can support us directly at Patreon
or get Kurzgesagt merch here. It really helps. It is awesome that you watched this far,
so we have made a playlist for you about more universe stuff. Subtitles made by Sebastian Winkelmann Subtitles by the Amara.org community

100 thoughts on “How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

  1. First: we onlyknow about the observable universe, not the whole universe, and second: We only know what is was, not what it is like, because the light, reaching us travveled for sometimes millions of years.

  2. Ever wonder what we are and how we became and what is everything or are we real? Maybe what happened before the Big Bang? No? Just me?

  3. We haven't even explored the depths of the ocean yet, so of course there are places we can't go. We probably won't even get out of Earth's orbit for at least another 200-500 years. and getting out of our solar system will be incredibly difficult. we would have to get past 2 asteroid belts and at least 5 planets that all have different dangers associated with them, not to mention the amount of time it would take just to get to Mars, let alone the edge of our solar system. and then we would have to find a place outside our solar system that we can survive. honestly, the chances of us finding a better home than Earth is so low that it isn't worth trying until we have the tech to make it relatively easy. we might as well accept our home and use our scientific knowledge to revitalize her so that we can continue our progress as a species.

  4. some brain breaking stuff i thought of: in the video this guy talks about how a race in the future will think it's cluster is all alone in the universe meaning it doesn't know the "true" origin of the universe. but what if there was something before the big bang and we are living in ignorance?

  5. What if the universe is a lot bigger than what we think, and we just can't see groups that are already way too far from us?

  6. if the universe is expanding? then the distance between the sun and earth should be increasing as well? or it that, the galactical objects remain intact but the distance between the galaxies increase?

  7. 100 years and everyone would realize that universe is not physical but a thought or ideal and the way to travel through is not using technology but through mind.

  8. There is no limit but we must search the way inside ourselves not in material world. Wake up gang time is running out……

  9. 5:50 This is why we must preserve information like this so future generations will not have to worry about thinking like that.

  10. why do we care about our limits when we don't even have colonies in our solar system which is one of many in our galaxy and then we even have andromeda do colonize whit other dwarf galaxies.

  11. If we are able to achieve 2 things (both of which are hypothetical but possible) we can possibly change everything,
    1) Build Super-Intelligent AI
    2) Use the AI to create Nanobots that can consume any matter and break down in fundamental elements in periodic tables and also replicate as much as needed.

    Then we can consume any planets/asteroids faster and faster and use the nanobots to assemble larger and larger colonial ships and also send nanobots seeds to distant reaches of the galaxy from where it will further send more nanobots seeds to further reaches after consuming for a while and the rate at which we consume matter in the galaxy increases exponentially and build technology more powerful and powerful computer for the superintelligence AI for it to build more and more new technologies and then it can construct any large scale or small scale experimental apparatus on its will to further increase its knowledge beyond. And within a few thousand years we would have almost consumed most of the galaxy and have enough resources and technology to go to nearby galaxies and start the cycle again and from there again spread further out. Until we consume the entire supercluster and then take all the matter and energy of the supercluster to go to other nearby supercluster and beyond.

    Phew …. 😀

  12. about the big bang, how the fuck did they know it was a big bang?? and what caused it??? how come something big get "banged" from nothingness?? …in the end.. "all is theory"

  13. Strange how even in a cosmic scale. History repeats itself. We started out thinking that everything happened for us and we were all there was to the universe, and then in the end in 9000000000000000000 years (if we are even around still) we will think once again, we are all there is to the universe. Both incredible and depressing as hell.

  14. In this video I saw two references to star trek that were the shape of the ship that is in crystal ball and in 5:54..those aliens are very similar to ferengis

  15. Should have also put the fact that we wont be able to stop the decay of the universe and that the universe will end in darkness or live on as nothing

  16. Can't go too far. The radiation will kill all travellers if not protected properly no matter what planet they land on especially Mars. They will live the rest of their natural life living in a bubble

  17. I have a theory.

    The universe is 1 universe, before and after. But it grew from the big bang in something i call, "The Horton and the Who effect"

    The universe at the big bang was already huge but it grew bigger and created our part of it. And right now, it could be getting close to making another part of itself. In comparison we are atoms to the newer universe.

  18. I disagree with the notion that we were born at the right time. I wish I had been born 300 years from now. At that time, we might have solved the problem of aging, making us live near forever.

  19. So many people arguing in the comments section about God vs science in regards to the beginning of it all, when science says we don't really know where it all came from, but likely nothingness and religious people's defense of their view isn't based on logic, but more in the lines of "I refuse to believe it, I FEEL x or y way about this".

    Reality doesn't care about your feelings, it just is.

  20. Kurzgesagt might as well make videos debating how many angels can dance on the head of a pin. Relativity contains the glaring Simultaneity Paradox, has turned out to have the same mathematics as thermodynamics, and even the Hubble Constant is now becoming questionable the more observations they make. The galaxies would all fly apart if they obeyed Newton, while mysterious dark matter and dark energy make up the overwhelming majority of the universe. Einstein complained that a black hole is impossible, but he also said a lot of other things Relativity predicts are impossible.

    Since Newton's first universal laws of motion, all of our physics and mathematics have become increasingly self-contradictory, vague, and nonsensical yet, outrageously more efficient and widely applicable. After spending more money than God on the largest and most accurate and complex machines ever devised, theoretical and high energy physics have not made fundamental progress in over 40 years. They know damned well they are contemplating their navels in the name of science, and using what they learn how to make better toasters and bombs.

  21. Damn your Defeatism.
    If humans did that;

    No ancient civilisations and the current ones descended there from
    Therefore;

    -My Father's people would never have bothered getting in ships.
    Or picking up a sword.
    Setting up a home away from home;
    To explore, conquer and colonise.

    -And my Mother's people would never have left the Homeland to sail into the vast emptiness of The Largest Ocean on Earth; And conquer it, finding those other 'Local Groups' and penetrating deep into them. DEEPAH!
    Those other 'Groups'
    Samoa Group
    Tonga South sparse Group
    Tokelau North Group
    Rarotonga Under Tonga Group
    Aotearoa from Rarotonga Group
    Tahiti Group
    Rapanui Group
    Hawai'i cluster Group
    Finally alltogether:
    Tangata o le Moana (People of the Ocean) of the Supercluster Polynesia.

    And the two wouldn't have met in Former Aotearoa. Now new zeAland
    To create this Bastard mongrel, between both those atoms 'Local Groups' that lay 'superclusters' apart, Der gerade diese verdammte Kapitel schrieben.
    To create an unstable radioactive isotope that will soon tear itself asunder or perhaps a little coaxing from the world in the form of a neutron will help it.

  22. Big bang is bullshit, you can't get something from nothing so how could all matter have been created by the biggest explosion in history when there was nothing to cause said explosion

  23. I dont dig videos that spout the big sham as fact instead of what it is. A theory. I'm out. Not even going to finish it.

  24. It depends how much brainwashing you listen to. If you listen to the atheist-scientific brainwashing, humanity will die out it a few centuries.

  25. 0:55 Wait really? It takes about 35 years to mars, but thousands to the sun? How fucking big is the solar system then?

  26. But through our Lord Jesus Christ, ALL things may be possible. Have faith, follow Christ and let's testify what possibilities there are. Jehovah and Jesus are the fulfillment of our imagination. They are awesome that way!

  27. Maybe this is a blessing in disguise.

    At least we only have to become the dominant species in the Local Group and we'll be forever untouchable masters of our own destiny and never have to worry about being conquered by aliens again. If the Universe was static we'd be forever looking over our galactic shoulders for the day a Frieza shows up.

    There could be an advanced intergalactic species in the Maffei group colonizing planets left and right as we speak. We get to hide behind dark energy and pull faces at them.

  28. A thousand years ago, the "great west ocean" was impossible to sail across. A 200 years ago, crossing the sky and entering the cosmos was impossible. We will find a way. We always do.

  29. So everything within each local group shares one big gravity well formed from the mass of everything inside the local group, and will eventually compress together into a single structure, but the local groups themselves are not caught in any gravitational force? Or they are, but they are so far apart already and the gravity is so weak that the force of the dark energy can continue pushing them apart?

  30. So our universe could be just another pocket that got too far from the others and that could go to infinity? That is dark.

  31. Going somewhere? ??
    Where do you spect to go with this fucken bunch of idiot humans. Can't even take care of their own planet. Give me a fucken break .We ain't going anywhere.

  32. As far as I know, and I should know it well, not just the Local group, but the whole galactic cluster (like our Virgo cluster) is still gravitationally bound. But super-clusters like Laniakea (and larger structures) are not.

  33. The central claim here, that the Local Group is the furthest we can go, seems wrong, or at least, not justified in the video. Yes, that's all that's gravitationally bound to us; yes, someday that will be the limit of the observable Universe. But not today. How far could we go, assuming we could approach the speed of light? Well, there's a horizon of galaxies that are, already, receding from us faster than light. We can never get there. But that still leaves a volume of space which, as far as I can tell, is more than a thousand times the radius of the Local Group, that should theoretically be accessible.

  34. Theoretically what if we could figure out how to travel to a different multiverse, where some stuff is different and we could break those boundaries.

  35. 2:08 „We are limited to a hundred billiionppfffppfth ..“

    – Why do I find that as funny as he says that? 😂

  36. Far from being depressed for humanity, maybe a Noah's ark of all animal DNA will be able to travel with us through a wormhole.. I do not believe you mentioned wormholes, if they exist. If they do exist then maybe we will be able to travel through them and save all life on our planet. Maybe I am a dreamer, but I will dream because we have been given life and should never give it up to easily. I am talking about all life on our planet.

  37. (KJV)(Philippians 3:8) Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge
    of Christ
    Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ,
    (KJV)(John 14:6) Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

  38. We were sneezed from the nostrils of the great green arkelseizure, and we await the coming of the great white handkerchief.

  39. Dark Matter: Can't see or prove it exists. Let's just call it: "Doesn't Matter"

  40. I've just thought about something. If we take into consideration the fact that due to the universe expansion, everything outside of our local group will become invisible and then unknown, people will therefore think that their universe will be limited to their supergalaxy and they will be assuming that the origin of their universe will coincide with the origin of their galaxy creating theory about how their Galaxy/Universe has been formed. This reminds me about the big bang. Is it possible to hypothesised that the big bang is just the beginning of our "local" universe that was, long time before, side by side with other universe which are now to far to be observed and understood?

  41. Every video I watch from this channel has a way of making life and existence seem that much more beautiful and amazing to me!

    “The cosmos is within us. We are made of star-stuff. We are a way for the universe to know itself.” -Carl Sagan

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