How Evolution works



Mekanizmat e evolucionit Cfare eshte evolucioni? Evolucioni eshte zhvillimi i jets ne planetin Toke Ky eshte nje proces qe filloi miliona vjet me perpara dhe ende vazhdon. Evolucioni na shpjegon se si eshte i mundur zhvillimi i diversitetit te formave jetesore. Ai na shpjegon se si protozoaret primitiv arriten te behen miliona prej specieve te ndryshme qe njihen sot. Evolucioni,pra,eshte pergjigjia e pyetjes qe te gjithe kemi pyetur kur kemi pare nje Dashund dhe nje Danez te madh sebashku: Si eshte e mundur qe te kete pasardhes qe duken kaq te ndryshem nga njeri tjetri? Per t'iu pergjigjur kesaj pyetjeje do fokusohemi tek kafshet,pa perfshire kerpurdhat ose bimet. Pyetja e pare qe mund te pyesim rrjedhimisht eshte: Si mundet nje kafshe te zhvillohet ne nje specie krejt te re? Po ceshte nje specie ekzaktesisht? Nje specie eshte nje grup kafshesh te cilat jane te afta te riprodhohen dhe te lindin pasardhes Dhe keta pasardhes jane ne gjendje te riprodhohen perseri per te dhene pasardhes te tjere. Per te kuptuar me mire ne duhem te perqendrohemi tek keto pika: 1.Uniticiteti i krijesave te gjalla, qe garantohet nepermjet riprodhimit dhe trashigimise, 2.Perzgjedhja natyrore Cdo krijese qe jeton eshte unike dhe kjo eshte e nevojshme per evolucionin. Pjestaret e nje specieje mund te perngjajne me njeri tjetrin ne paraqitje; Prapeseprape ato kane tipare dhe karakteristika te ndryshme. Ata mund te jene pak me te medhenj, te shendoshe, te forte ose tullecer se te tjeret. Cila eshte arsyeja e ketyre ndryshimeve?
Le ti veshtrojme me nga afer. Cdo krijese eshte e perbere nga qelizat.Keto qeliza kane nje berthame. Berthama permban kromozomet dhe kromozomet permbajne ADN. ADN konsiston ne gjene te ndryshme dhe jane keto gjene te cilat mbartin informacionin. Ato mbartin instruksione dhe urdhra per qelizen dhe perkufizojne karakteristikat dhe tiparet e krijesave te gjalla. Dhe eshte pikerisht kjo ADN qe eshte unike per cdo krijese. Ajo ndryshon prej te nje individ tek nje tjeter prandaj ata kane tipare te ndryshme. Po si krijohet ky varietet i jashtezakonshem ADN-je? Nje faktor qe luan rol kryesor ne kete pjese eshte riprodhimi ne mase. Ne natyre mund te verejme se kafshet kane me shume pasardhes se e kane te nevojshme, si per pasoje shume prej tyre vdesin ne moshe te re. Shpesh ka me shume te lindur, se sa mjedisi,ku ato jetojne,nuk mund ti perballoje Ky eshte nje nga faktoret qe ndikon ne rrijtjen e diversitetit brenda species. Sa me shume pasardhes qe lindin aq me pak dallime ka ndermjet tyre, dhe kjo eshte ajo qe do natyra: Sa me shume dallime te vogla. Shkaku i dyte i unicitetit shkaktohet dhe nga trashigimia vete. Me trashegimi kuptojme transmetimin e ADN nga prinderit tek pasardhesit. Dy faktorej luajne rol ne kete proces:Rikombinimi dhe Mutacioni. Rikombinimi eshte perzierja e rastesishme e ADN-se se dy krijesave. Kur dy krijesa bien ne dashuri dhe ciftohen, ato rikombinojne gjenet e tyre dy here. Heren e pare, ato e bejne kur ato gjenerojne gametat specifike si sperma dhe vezet. Gametat marrin gjysmen e gjeneve dhe i perziejne ato. Hera e dyte, ndodh kur nje mashkull inseminon nje femer. Prinderit japin secili 50% nga ADN e tyre,pra 50% te karakteristikave dhe tipareve te tyre specifike. Keto me pas rikombinohen ose miksohen.Dhe resultatati eshte nje pasardhes i ri. Keta pasardhes kane nje miks ADN te rastesishem,pra tiparet dhe karakteristikat e prinderve te tyre. Kjo rrit diversitetin dhe ndryshimet brenda nje specieje me tej, por mutacionet jane poashtu te rendesishme per evolucionin. Mutacionet jane ndyshime te rastesishme ne ADN. Mutacionet mund te pershkruhen si gabime te kopjimit te ADN, te shkaktuara nga toksinat ose substanca te tjera kimike,ose dhe nga radiacioni. Nje mutacion krijohet kur nje pjese e ADN-se ndryshohet. Keto ndryshime jane shpesh negative dhe mund te rezultojne ne semundje si kanceri. Prapseprape, ato mund te kene efekte neutrale ose pozitive, si ngjyra blu e syve tek njerezit,e cila eshte nje mutacion i rastesishem. Ne te gjitha rastet nje mutacion duhet te preke nje gamete si sperma ose veza, sepse vetem ADN-ja e gametave trashegohet tek pasardhesi. Kjo eshte arsyeja qe gjate nje seance me rreze-x ne mbrojme organet tona seksuala, kurse pjeset e tjera te trupit nuk jane ne rrezik. Per ta permbledhur; ne procesin e trashegimise krijesat transmetojne karakteristikat tek pasardhesite tyre me ane te ADN-se. Rikombinimi dhe mutacioni e ndryshojne ADN-ne,qe cdo pasardhes te ndryshoje nga te tjeret, dhe te marr nje miks te rastesishem te karakteristikave te prinderve. Kjo eshte nje fjale kyqe:rastesia Te gjitha keto procese jane te bazuara ne shans ose rastesi. Rikombinimet dhe mutacionet e rastesishme rezultojne ne individe te rinj me mikse te rastesishme me tipare ose karakteristika, te cilet i miksojne keto rastesisht dhe i trashegojne tek brezi tjeter. Po si mund te jete e rastesishme,kur te gjitha krijesat e gjalla jane te pershtatura ne mjedis, si p.sh insekti shkop ose kolibri,dhe peshkut-bretkose? Pergjigjia mundesohet nga pika e dyte : Seleksioni Cdo individ eshte i zgjedhur sipas nje procesi te selektimit natyror. Sic kemi mesuar,cdo individ eshte i ndryshem nga tjeri, dhe ka variacione shtese brenda nje specieje. Faktoret e jashtem kane nje efekt ne krijesat e gjalla. Keto te ashtuquajtur faktor selktiv perfshijne: Grabitqaret, parazitet, kafshe te te njejtes specie, toksina , ndryshime ne habitat, ose klime. Selektimi eshte nje proces te cilin cdo gjallese eshte e detyruar ta ndjeke. Cdo krijese ka nje miks unik tiparesh ose karakteristikash. Ky miks i ndihmon te mbijetojne ne mjdisin e tyre, ose jo… Cdo individ me nje miks te papershtatshem do te selektohet nga mjedisi rrethues. Individet me miksin e duhur mbijetojne dhe trashegojne tiparet e tyre te permirsuara. Prandaj,diversiteti eshte shume i rendesishem. Kjo eshte arsyeja qe shume krijesa mundohen te lindin sa me shume pasardhes qe jane te ndryshem. Duke rritur keshtu mundesine qe ky pasardhes tí mbijetoje selektimit natyror. Duke rritur keshtu mundesine qe ky pasardhes tí mbijetoje selektimit natyror. Nje shembull i mire i ketij rasti eshte nje grup trishtilash qe jetojne ne nje ishull te pabanuar. Ato jane disa nga kafshet me te njohura ne boten e shkences, te njohur si trishtilat e Darvinit, pas zbulimit te tyre nga Charles Darwin. Disa qindra vjet me perpara,nje grup i vogel trishtilash u zhvendos ne ishujt Galapagos ne mes te oqeanit Atlantik,ndoshta nga nje stuhi e madhe. Keta zogj e gjeten veten ne nje mjedis komplet te ri per ta, nje parajse e vertete: Rezarva te medha ushqimore, pa grabitqare. Ata u riprodhuan shume dhe u perhapen ne gjithe ishujt. Qe solli nje reduktim te rezervave ushqimore. Kjo "parajse" ishte e kercenuar dhe mes zogjve lindi konkurrenca. Ketu hyri ne mes Seleksitimi Natyror. Karakteristikat dhe ndryshimet e vogla, ne kete rast sqepat e ndryshem, do te thoshte qe disa prej zogjve mund ta shmangnin konkurrencen me te tjeret. Sqepat e disa zogjve ishin me te pershtatura, per te germuar per krimba. Zogjte e tjere ishin te zote ti perdornin sqepat e tyre per te hapur fara. Rrjedhimisht keta trishtila u ndane ne grupe, ne te cilat konkurrenca ishte me e vogel. Ata filluan te ciftohen brenda grupit. Me kalimin e shume brezave keto karakteristika u perfeksionuan, duke i mundesuar keta zogj per te shfytezuar grupet e tyre plotesisht. Diferencat midis dy grupeve u bene aq te medha, saqe ata nuk mund te ciftoheshin me njeri-tjetrin.Specie te reja u formuan si rezultat. Sot jane 14 lloje specie trishtilash qe jetojne ne ishujt Galapagos, ku te gjithe jane rrjedhes nga e njejta specie trishtilash. Kjo eshte rruga ne te cilen specie te reja krijohen nga evolucioni: Nga nderveprimi i individeve unik, lindjet e shpeshta dhe te shumta, rikombinimi dhe mutacioni ne procesin e trashegimise, dhe perfundimisht nga Seleksitimi. Pse eshte kaq e rendesishme? Na shpjegon se nga vjen ky varietet krijesash dhe pse keto krijesa jane te pershtatura me habitatin e tyre. Por ndikon edhe tek ne personalisht. Cdo person eshte rezultat i 3.5 miliard viteve evoluim dhe kjo te perfshin ty. Paraardhesit e tu luftuan dhe u pershtaten per te mbijetuar. Kjo mbijetese ishte e pasigurte. Nqs e konsiderojme faktin se 99% e specieve qe kane jetuar me perpara jane zhdukura, atehere mund ta konsiderojme veten pjese te nje historie suksesi. Dinozauret jane zhdukur po ti je gjalle, duke pare kete video, sepse ti je shume i vecante, si krijesat e tjera qe ekzistojne sot: te pazevendesueshme dhe unike ne univers.

25 thoughts on “How Evolution works

  1. There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

  2. Here is some seriously BAD news:
    1) If you believe in ball-earth, you trust the entire ball-earth package (NASA, moon landings, ISS, school text books, ball-earth programming,…)
    Then your sperm count is DOWN by 40%!

    Reasons:
    Try to figure it out yourself by using your brain.
    Else I will help you out.

  3. I want someone to explain to me the very beginning, IN DETAIL.
    How, against all odds, did it all start?

  4. The end is key. Growing up under religious teachers pushing creationism, i was told and i believed that there were no instances of evolution that led to different species developing from the same ancestors. I was told that micro-evolution was the only thing observed and that meant breeds of creatures who could always still mate with each other. I believed in evolution even before I knew that the "micro-evolution" thing was a lie.

  5. Holy sh!t, as I look at the comment section all I see is this Oscar/inventionless/professor loser spamming and harassing anyone who remotely defends evolution. Within the last two days he’s posted at least twenty comments (completely devoid of logic, facts or arguments). Most of us normal people have jobs and relationships but this worthless blob spends every waking moment of it’s pitiful existence on these videos. I can practically smell the rancid Cheeto crumbs in his sweaty neck beard. How long has it been since this virgin has seen sunlight?

  6. WARNING:

    Any large employer that shows the GLOBE sign in its promotional material is part of the EVIL club, hand in glove with NASA.

    Be warned!

  7. What does science mean?

    It is an occult phenomenon. They have coded psychological operation and target areas in this word.

    science = psychological operation in senses = psy op in senses = psy in senses = cryptic coding: sci-ences = sciences

  8. a long long time ago, in a fairy tale far away,
    monkeys shape shifted into human beings from spiraling fire balls that cooled down from a random magical big bang, which a cunning jesuit priest of the antichrist catholic church devised, "father georges la'maitre"

    bible says, call no man "father" for you have but one father in heaven and the wrath of his anger is death.
    down with the vaticunt clowns who propagate evil globe earth fraud and evilution lies.

  9. Fairytale hour boys and girls! Our fairytale for today is presented in this video. Enjoy!
    There is no Macroevolution…stop telling the dumb masses that they are related to bananas and monkeys.

  10. I didn't even have to get half way through this video to smell the bullshit and lies. Why do you do this? Everything said in this video is only true for differences in the same phenotype or body plan as in dogs. No matter how the genes are mixed in dogs, they remain dogs. They have never changed. They have always been dogs. There is no known mechanism for change of phenotype or body plan. Same with finches, they are all still finches. Darwin took examples of microevolution and extrapolated it to macroevolution. Microevolution is well understood and observed. Macroevolution has never been observed, there is no evidence for it in the fossil record, and the mechanism of change is entirely unknown. So this video, while some of the small points are true, is a complete lie. And that sums up universal common descent and it's supporters, lies endorsed by liars. Why don't you go out and do something useful.

  11. – we have any kind of food with any kind of taste, we have any kind of drink with any kind of taste, we have any kind of material to build and make anything we want, the world is the place to be, evolution couldn't do this. "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you:".

    – believe in magic soup of darwin (satan), believe in the frog which became a prince. (bad advice)

    – repent yourselves, read the bible, help poor people.

  12. WALKING WHALES LIE; Pakicetus was a wolf like mammal. It had a bone in it's inner ear called an "involucrum" that resembled something found in whales. It was fully terrestrial (lived it's entire life on land) and looked nothing like a whale but neo-Darwinist, desperate for a whale ancestor, tagged it Pakicetus or "Pakistani whale". Ambulocetus, Maiacetus, Kuchicetus and Rodhocetus were extinct variations of sea lions or otters. They were amphibious (lived part of their lives on land and part in the water). They used their hind legs and tail for swimming and their four limbs for walking on land.

    Basilosaurus and Dorudon were extinct whales that were fully aquatic ( lived their entire lives in the water) and lived contemporaneously.

    Land and amphibious mammals have nostrils for breathing on the front of their heads. Whales have a blowhole on the top of their bodies to breath.

    The blowhole of a whale is surrounded by thick muscular “lips” that keep the hole tightly closed except when the animal makes a deliberate effort to open it at the surface. Total submersion thus takes less effort for whales than for animals that must actively exclude water from their air passages. Coming onto land is not a natural act for a whale; beached whales die if they're not quickly helped back in the water.

    Land and amphibious mammals use four legs—tail assisted for amphibians while in water—to move around in their environment. Whales use a fluke to move around in their environment. Land and amphibian mammals can survive without the tip of their tail. Whales can't survive without it.

    Flukes are flat horizontal lobes at the ends of their tails. Fluke movements are coordinated by a complex system of long, powerful tendons connecting them to specialized muscles in the tail.

    These are a few of the myriad of changes they would have to undergo. For neo-Darwinist it would take hundreds of millions of random mutations (random variations for traditional Darwinist), to compel a fully terrestrial mammal to turn into a fully aquatic mammal.

    The biggest problem for the "walking whales" is the empirical evidence–Darwinist refuse to acknowledge–not found in the fossil record. It's all but complete. Paleontologist have not discovered the fossils of innumerable transitional intermediate mammals, falling between and linking land mammals and aquatic mammals. All the natural history museums in the world should be overflowing with them.

    With enough imagination anyone can invent a story about how land mammals evolved into whales. But an imaginative story isn't empirical science.

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