History of Vikings


Violence of the men from northern Europe General historical opinions
about the Viking gravestone, is different from that of
the reality of the past. Vikings were a temporary threat
to the western civilization. Hostile treatment of the Vikings
populace is widely known for the so many evidences available
even today as pictographs. It all started and
remained for four centuries since ninth
A.D till the eleventh. MAGYARS AND THE MOORS Vikings were negative,
and in generic, they are destructive and completely
hostile to francia. Francia was the historical
centre of the ancient Europe. The traditional story
begins in the historical day of Christmas, in 800 A.D.
at Rome. This is the central point of all
the early middle age events. It can be said as one of
the foremost attempts made by the Germans to
unite Europe as one unit. It is called as a landmark in the struggle. The church and the state were
confronting one another. Huge area at that time belonged
to the control of Francia. It is from the Danish march to
all the way until central Italy. The successors collapsed
the empire, though. The empire of Charlemagne,
which was united once, was shattered into pieces in just
about hundred year’s time. Some of the parts were tiny,
and some others were large. All began to operate as autonomous units. Otto I came to throne
in 962 and that is when the eastern parts slowly
start to rebuild. His successors contributed
quite a lot to rebuild the eastern territories, into
one big Francia State. This development reached its climax in
1049 when King Henry III intervened. Papal reform and the Leo IX replacements
were significant on the papal throne. Charles mage promise for then fulfilled. Rise and the fail of the Caroling an
empire since 9th century till eleventh century, is the history of Europe, all until
the German successors came into power. Viking invaders were considered
a destructive force. Overreliance on the monastic chronicles,
the national historians forget the other destructive forces that were
on play at the same time in Europe. Internecine wars among those Irish tribes,
or even the Anglo Saxon kingdoms, or even amidst the Frankish
populace were not taken into key consideration but the Vikings were
chosen to be the whipping boys. Traditional focus is completely misplaced. Scandavian people on the northern
Europe must be considered as a whole without pinpointing on
the Carolingian Empire alone. VIKING CIVILIZATION Raw and untamed populace of the
vikings had amazing power. Viking civilization of the northern part
of the Europe was strong, and vibrant. They had their imitable impact on
the people of rest of the Europe. Even in those islands
across the seas and oceans they did had their dominance
for centuries together. Harassments by the Vikings
along the coastal side of Scotland, England and Ireland
prevailed there since 800s. It was there even before the
death of Charlemagne in 814. That was the interdiction for the expansion
of Francia towards the northern directions. Northern peninsula Vikings came from the gateway initially. This vibrant community of tribes
inhabited North European peninsulas. Baltic islands offshore, the
Norwegian – Swedish peninsulas, and the Jutland peninsulas
were the entry points. These are the three places from where
the Vikings originated into Europe. Denmark, Norway and Sweden
are these places today. Scandinavia and its northern tip
towards Denmark is the route, which was not as thickly as it was populated
during the later centuries. Sea facing countries had the sea
in different directions, though. West and southwest sea facing Denmark,
and the Norway faced it from the west. Face of Sweden is towards
the east and the southeast. Fjords and mountains of Norway and
the thick forests land of Sweden, and some central parts of Denmark
is from where the Vikings originated making them to be wild
and crude in their mannerisms. Deep-water inlets extended inwards into
the country for hundreds of miles. Well above the mean sea level
at 500 meters height, the place was secured enough
and less occupied as well. First and foremost raids The Vikings raids were initially
targeting the British Isles. Just like the roman invaders and the Anglo
Saxon invaders, the Vikings and their deeds during the raids, were largely
misinterpreted by the hostile press, uniformly. Some major parts of the British
Isles were remaining unchanged, as the Vikings did not bother
to focus on these prime areas. The early invaders were quite heathen,
persistent and highly exploitive. The pity is that they
eventually were assimilated. Hopping islands It is important to mention here
about the island hopping by these Viking men with land hunger during
the 9th century in particular. There was clear inner dynamics
in the migration movement. When they start to be settled
in Shetland, Ireland is no more an attraction for
majority of these settlers. Seamen and farmers wanted
to explore and invade further and further in
the weste3rn dominions. Uninhabited places were the key
attraction for the Vikings to settle. The Faroe Island from
the Iceland, and the islands closer to Greenland,
was not left alone. Navigational skills and
the sailing skills of the Vikings must be really
noted here, without fail. The westward expansion ended
and only short lived, when they reached the shores along
the North American continent. Living on marginal land, at
the end of the world, in Greenland shown their real
prowess to the entire world. These men and women were highly
skilled enough to face challenges. Above all, they were strongly
united to attack, and invade places, and people with least
mercy shown in their deeds. This is what that fetched them
the biggest hostility amidst the people in Europe, north America
and even in some parts of Russia, in the 4 centuries they thrived in
the world, as a destructive force. Their contributions to alter
maps later o is something that anyone need to mention
here without fail. Invasions, expansions, and
the assaults resulted in serious consequences that
there were big changes that made immediately in the territories
of kingdoms before and after the assault. The Viking settlement in the
central Greenland, although was never large, there was
heavy footprints even today. They were living in the edge of the world. Unlike the major parts of Ireland
where they settled earlier, there were no interventions of the
Irish monks or anyone else here. Interestingly, Greenland hardly had any
inhabitants at that point of time. First recorded sighting of the Viking
in the Greenland continent was in the 9 A.D., the emigrations were mainly due to
the heavy storms at that point of time. The lost ships and many other
reasons made the Viking community to move to this part of the
world, to see for livelihood. Even the strongest of the human
populace who are courageous enough to face oddities, and highly skilled
in their navigational skills, were not treated with a great
deal of hospitality in some parts of the world that were occupied
by the earlier settlers. Here there were no occupants
in Greenland though. The Vikings found the storm and
the other natural catastrophic challenges to face more often
in this end of the world. The best part about the invasions here by
the Viking is that they never gave it up. They were eager to occupy
more and more territories and further their expansions
towards the far west. They were successful in doing
so, all until the northern Atlantic shores that belonged
to North American continent. Here is where the doubt
arises for the historians about the discover of the
new world, Americas. If Christopher Columbus was
the one who discovered this part of the world, in fourteen
the or fifteenth century then how about the findings of this Vikings
in the ninth and the tenth century? Who found the Americas
for the first ever time? New world, America found Vikings were not only good in their
hunting skills, conquering skills and the best navigational skills alone, but they
were too good to explore places too. They were the first to
travel further towards the northern west and find the
shores of North America. The historians forged many documents and
changed the actuality from what it was. There were misconceptions that were
deliberately made for political reasons. So many changes were made in the
manuscripts and the engravings purposely to let the world know and identify
something that is not true at all. Even before the
Vikings, the Asiatic populace has landed in
the Americas already. It was far before during
the early reigns that dates back to 30000
years before from now. There is no doubt in this
fact that the Vikings were the first to
reach North America. Historical evidence is ample
enough to emphasis on this fact. These millennium men and
their cultural ties reached far from Iceland
and Scandinavia. Discovery of the western hemisphere
is fascinated in variety ways by the early historians and
even by the modern communities for some strange motives that can
hardly be predicated, at all. There were diverse motives behind it. Asiatic people discovered
the western hemisphere long time before the
Europeans did so. The Europeans authoritatively
established their discovery and findings by settling there
in the western hemisphere soon after their findings as it was
suitable for their own life style conditions and proximal in distance
compared to what the Asiatic people did. The climatic conditions in Asia
are identical to that of the North American countries but only
in the northern part of Asia. Other than that the actual people who
found the western hemisphere even before the Vikings did so, were not belonging
to the northern hemisphere at all. They were travelers form the
southern tip of the Asian continent. That led to the contradicting facts and
statements, as there was dominance from the other parts of the world and
even from the Asiatic communities. Distance is so far from the
group that found the western hemisphere to find the place to
be suitable for living there. Settlers were meager in numbers. That was the reason why there was
a popular misconception that Columbus only discovered the
Americas in the fifteenth century. Columbus and his crew were highly skilled
navigators who had some tremendously advanced equipment and tools to face rough
situations in the oceans, storms and so on. Yet, the Asiatic during those days did
not have anything of that kind, but still managed to reach all until the
Americas by one means or the other. Probably, they might have had the intellect
of the phenomenal standards and the real courage and strength more than what the Vikings
had, to have accomplished such a feat. Vikings found the north
Americas only for the second time, as the history
knows it to be and then comes in Columbus
to have rediscovered the country in the later
few centuries time. Even though Vikings found the Americas, they
did not settle there for quite long, as their populace was concentrated mostly in
the northern part of Europe in majority. Most of the offers that are coming in
today as historical evidence and proof s engravings are only emphasizing on
these rare findings in particular. Europeans or the Mediterranean’s? Who was there in the
Americas before the Vikings arrived here in
the nine the century. Ring of anachronisms are always
there because of the lack of great deal of evidences, to come to a
valid conclusion due this regards. Some of the vague texts
that might or not be original, and the
ambiguous engravings that could not be trusted totally, are the only
few evidence to show any affirmation here. Vikings explorations German geographer named Adam the
earliest of all has clearly mentioned in his findings
about the northern islands. That confirms that at
least 1000s of Viking communities had already
reached the Americas in the 12 and the 13th
centuries even before Christopher Columbus could
have reached there. They called it as Vinland. Free growing crops were in abundance there. Country vines of Vinland
produced some high quality wine. Trustworthy reports from the
Danes have mentioned about this and not a fancy story
to be mentioned here. Bremen and Adam had gathered all these
information and presented in their reports. Large islands that
stretch to more than 100 miles were mostly named
after by the Vikings. Vinland, or Greenland, or Iceland
is not exceptions to this fact. There were numerous such
coastal lines that were found and named by the Vikings to
add on to their own credits. More than explorers and invaders the
Viking communities were well organized in their life style and discipline to
stay fit, agile, strong and victorious. It is the sheer determination that
had led to their hug successes in having scaled some unknown
corridors of the world, with ease. Most important something
to note down here, is that they were not civilized
like the westerners but still they had managed to
navigate through the biggest of the oceans, and emerge victorious in
most of the attempts of their own. It can be like conquering new England or
it can be the discover of the Vinland, there are many feats that were achieved with
credible easy by the marvelous people who were black listed and
portrayed to be destructive some, deliberately by
most of the press. Conquering lands and
invading countries were a matter of pride during
those days remains of which is still there
in the blood of many individuals in many
parts of the world. They are just waiting for
the right opportunities to show their prowess
to the entire world. When there are materialistic ways towards
finding better facts and identifying better prospects for human life to exist
in the planet for long periods of time, enough amount of time is being spent
only in destructive activities right from the early days of the
human kind to all until today. The civilized society today has
wolves covered in sheepskin too. All they are bothered is just
only to show their dominance and make others subdue
in one way or the other. That can be through sabotage. That can be through conspiracies or it can
be through evil doings of the other kind. They are not concerned about the
massive number of lives that are lost in the efforts as they consider
that to be a sacrifice of the few in their own communities towards
the betterment of the others. The reality though, is easily
predictable, as no one ever remains to be the top of the
other races and ethnic groups. It is just a cyclical process. Even though, it is all known to
the common person today after so many centuries when the
improved life style standards, and education has made us so civilized,
the earlier situations were not the same. It is not just the Viking community
alone that fought for a cause. There were numerous other communities
around the world, who were actively plotting and putting
in efforts from all the sides, in all the ways to get recognition,
and come to the lime light. If the English has tried
anything of that kind, then not anyone might not be
talking in English today. There are so many Spanish
communities in the southern Americas and in
the central Americas too. All these are because of the early
settlers in this part of the world. If the earlier expansions had not
happened then only the natives of the particular demographics
would have remained everywhere. Improvements might have been at stake. Africa is known to be a dark continent
and many parts of the continent even today is suppressed from
civilized life style standards, just because of the simple reason,
that the invasions are the least to this part of the world since time
immemorial for one reason or the other. It could be just because of the
simple reason that the dark race was the strongest in the world,
to compete or combat with ease. That might have made the others to
make up their mind, and did not show much inclination to be settled
in these parts of the world. Climatic conditions and the arid deserts
might have threatened the early invaders. Whatever may be the reason the invasions
did not happen in large scales and as a result, the connections
with the outside world were limited. It is just because of that
reason the developments came in very slowly to
these parts of the world. Many parts of Africa are
called as under developed nations of the world just
because of these reasons. Considering all these facts, anyone can
easily come to the fact that invasions and colonization are justifiable
in one way or the other, as long as there
are no mass killings. Therefore, this thirst to
conquer was there with almost all the communities
across the world. Therefore, not anyone can
say the action of the Vikings to invade and expand
as a wrong idea at all. They did it vigorously, though. They did it fearlessly though. It was their nature to fight it
hard and emerge victorious in their attempts regardless of the strengths
of the enemies that they faced. Evidences show a lot and
emphasis on that fact big time. If that is the case,
then there is no need to wrongly assume that the
Vikings are negative and destructive groups
who remained to be a menace for the Europeans
for centuries together. If not the Vikings, there
anyone too many internal threats in the same Francoise
state in varied forms. There were too many threats
like the rebels and the opponent parties in
the same communities. That led to the delay in the
progression of the François state or in organizing the whole
of the north Western Europe. If not the Vikings, there
could have been great delay in finding new islands of the
northeastern hemisphere. Even though, not anyone can
say these aspects to be contributions from the Viking
community to the world, not anyone need have to have a
misconception that the Vikings were destructive forces who remained as
a huge threat to the Europeans. The Danes in the south Foremost attacks were fierce. The Pagan ship’s crew attacked the
coasts of Aquitaine in the year, 799. Enough repulsion was
there from the natives. Many attackers were slain
and thrown on the sea. Corpses were found on the seashore. The battles were deadly. Even though, the number of attackers
from the Danes side, were not exceeding in numbers, most often they emerged
victorious in bagging big wealth. Diamonds, cash money, coins,
and gold were bagged as valuable returns and plundered
back to their own domicile. Some of the brutal attacks and the brutal
even repulsions from the opponents, killed hundreds and hundreds of lives
and even civilian lives in particular. The English adviser for Charlemagne
mannered about this particular fact to the king or the emperor that the Christians
were being punished for their sinful acts. Even though, there were counter
attacks and measures that were attempted b the emperor and
leaders of the northern nations, and the Frankish state, the Vikings
attack was a serious menace for the emperor and even the descendants to
worry about their country and assets. This led to the weak administration
and less confident successors who came to throne successfully and feared
the Vikings so bad all the while. This fear and lack of self-confidence
that was inherent in the minds of the successive generations about the
Viking community led to the downfall. All until the 12th century, the
organized efforts were not possible. Germans tried for the reunion of the European
state only after the total decline of the Vikings after ruling
over the whole of the northern hemisphere for
almost 400 years or so. Horned helmets One of the most important reasons why the
Vikings were considered to be so brutal and destructive enough in their methods
of approach is their fearlessness. The valiant attitude is
not seen with majority of the other warriors
of the same era. They are gallant enough to
fight even the best of the protective gear like the
armors or the horned helmets. Horned helmets are something
mandatory for any warrior to be subjected
into the battlefields. It is quite common, as anyone could
have seen in the portraits of much diverse kind, in many historical engravings
in different parts of the world. Yet, the Vikings were quite
distinct enough in this particular ay too, as they are not wearing
any of those horned helmets, but managed to fight even without any
of the special protective equipments. They believed in themselves
more than anything else did. They were real warriors and
they also had the best of the skills and fitness to overcome
threats of any massive kind. That confidence and aggression
in these groups, had led to their victories in
various parts of the world. That is the reason why
they had good cultural ties with the Moslems
of Baghdad too. There focus was not limited to the European
dominion alone, but they were spread all over the north, north easier and
northwestern hemispheres of the globe. Health and hygiene They rowed boats, and
decapitated enemies at will. Yet that is not all that the Vikings
are known for, but there are also some salient aspects of the most
interesting and fascinating kind. They were clean and maintained
hygiene all the while. They were disciplined in
their life style practices. There were razors, combs,
and many other animal made cleaning tools and equipment
found on their camps sites. They bathed at least
once in a week compared to the peer Europeans
at that time. Hot springs are their most favorite
places to make a shower at once. They had the practice of wearing good clothes
without helmets unlike the roman and the Greeks who worn the horned helmets for
celebrations and festivities in particular. Technology People call the Viking communities
to be barbarians with less knowledge about the civilization
but that is not a fat either. There were communities that lived with
great deal of discipline and used a lot of advanced gears, accessories, tools and
equipment for varied needs of their own. They used the special type
of liquids made by their own for their own
communities, to start fire. Lighters of this kind are highly innovative
for that time when there was no discovery of kerosene or petroleum or any other
similar type of gasoline to lit lamps. This liquid is extensively
used during their ordeals in the jungle
or in the war zone, or for many other reasons of the
other kind like threatening wild animals, fighting with
the enemies and so on. That is because they can start
fire almost immediately with the strange liquid
that they were using. Similarly, there were many medicines
that they had in their reserves too. These were some of the rarest
herbs that had some miraculous healing powers and not known
to the outside world, for centuries together about the
extensive benefits of the herbs. How do they know about all these and
where did they get the rarest of the herbs when they were inhabited only
in the ice countries most often? These facts goes to show
that they had deeper connections with many
other parts of the world, from where they were able to
procure such rare herbs of the specific kind to be used as a
wonderful healing drug, or creams. Pirates and farmers Pirates were there in the
margin communities for sure. There were people who
largely liked to plunder things from the others, and
make a living upon it. That is the reason why they were
invading the other people territories. Yet, majority of the Viking
communities are not like that. They were originally interested in finding
a permanent place for their own with rich natural resources and evergreen life
for their successors to come as well. Fortunately, they were not able
to find it so easily and that is the reason why there were
so many findings to sustain. It could be the islands that they found, it
could be the fire starting liquid, or it can be the tools and the equipment that
they used to combat, and stay hygienic too. Interestingly, whatever they did
for fitness and living, made them to be far stronger than
what they used to be earlier. Consider forming for example. When enough time is spent in farming
all throughout the year, to make a living out of that, then naturally,
the fitness standards are impeccable. Adapting to diverse climatic
conditions becomes innate. Fit and agile men and
gallant enough to combat against enemies with sheer
power and confidence unlike the others who are used
to the luxurious life style in the palaces and the kingdoms of
the east European countries. That led to the downfall of the might empires
of the east and that led to the expansion of the Viking populace all over the
northern hemisphere in quick successions. That also led to the rapid
increase in the overall population of the Vikings in between 9th
century and the 10th century. Viking women were hitched earlier
just by the age of 12 or so, and have to live with little freedom just as
most of the women did of that era. Yet, they enjoyed all the basic
rights, like inheriting properties, or getting back the dowries in
case of a divorce, and so forth. Basic rights of women were preserved
well in the Viking community. When their husbands sail for
adventure, these women remained loyal to their men and led a
simple life all until the reunion. Swords and scythes If anyone is seeing a Viking
virtually as a callous pirate, then anyone
must understand a fact that the pirates are there
in the massive number of Viking communities, as only
negligible proportions. Any community does have the bad
men and women around for true. So does the Vikings too. There were majority of the Vikings
who were hard working farmers. They bred cattle, for their living. It is not just the farming alone, though. Livestock sales and purchases were quite
common among the Viking communities. They were living happily only by farming
most of the times, more than what they did to thrive, through the burglary
attacks or invasions across the world. It is the main element that kept
them going as fit and agile some people in the toughest of the
communities around the world. They showed enough respect
to the dead by doing enough formalities and
rituals for the deceased. They did not bury the dead but made a special
boat for the dead ones, and sent the bodies along with the course of the river,
or like or water bodies in and around. This is the custom to show due
respect to the dead ones. Recreational activities were unlimited
with the Viking communities. They enjoyed having fun
with the skiing boards. There were so many diverse
types of skiing boards that were used in the early
ninth and tenth centuries by the Viking communities who
believed that skiing is one of their own best recreational activities
that kept them all active. Even hundreds of years before that the
Russian ancestors had invented the skiing equipment and used it extensively
to enjoy their holidays and weekends. Skiing is one of the most
entertaining sports to enjoy the local climatic
conditions to the core. That keeps one fit and agile
regardless of the adverse climates that can pose to
be a threat at times too. Therefore, Vikings used this
for recreation and fun. At the same time, the skiing activity,
gave them the needed fitness as well. Farming is the main occupation of
the Viking communities everywhere. In fact, the major reason why
they were kept on moving from one part of the world,
to that of the other, is to look for a permanent
domicile where they can settle in peace with
enough chances to thrive. Lush greeneries and the ideal
lands with enough water resources are their prime
targets to farm and thrive. That is the motivational aspect
behind all their emigrations from Greenland to Iceland and so
many other parts of the Europe all until their findings
of North American shores. Vikings and the slave trade Slave trade in the past is not
something that is scarce. Everyone almost was quiet
inclined to buy and sell slaves. Higher prices were
offered to some of the beautiful women out there
by emperor and the big nobles and royal mean
den women of the Middle Eastern countries and the
European countries too. As the climatic conditions
were contrasting in both the places, there were
not big trade relations that existed between the
Middle East and the European countries for
people could not adapt to the hot and humid conditions
of the middle Easter dominion to go and do sell or buy some
of the most beautiful women. Vikings were daring enough to do this job and
they did carry bunch of men and women in ships to the other parts of the world,
including Russia to sell them for good pried. As basically they were great
warriors, and pirates, there were so many challenge that amen
on the way to do the trades, but most of the time they emerged
victorious enough, with their innate skills to fight and
navigate through the rough seas. There was many two of the vying
community who became so rich by doing huge slave trades in
the Middle Eastern countries that flourished with great
deal of wealth that was already plundered
from the Asiatic people. Asia did not have one massive unit like
Frankish state to be held as one unit. There were diverse races
in the same dominion. Mongolian race was the dominant just only
next to the forces of Ukraine and Russia. Other than that smaller kingdoms were quite
too many to not to remain secured and safe. This was taken to be advantageous by
the Moslems who remained united in the Middle Eastern countries regardless
of the boundary differences. There were only a few Islamic nations in
the whole of the Middle Eastern dominion compared to the numerous small kingdoms
with rich wealth in the Asiatic countries. Natural vegetations
and the resources of gold were numerous in
the sadistic dominion. Arts, handicrafts and some of
the amazing stones and jewels of the most precious kind were
found in some parts of Asia, which were plundered to the
Middle Eastern countries by the ancient warriors who had big
troops under their control. Moreover, for their
services, they had loyal slaves bought from the
northeastern Africans. These slaves were huge and
dangerous enough to be a great threat to the warriors
in the battlefield. These slaves were purchased for some
meager costs by the Baghdad rulers. These slaves were used
extensively to do a great deal of work, including
fighting in the major wars. Briefly, it was like hiring
labor from one part of the world, to use it in the
other part of the world, for battling with the smaller
dominions of the Asian continent, and plunder away some valuable
gold, diamonds, pearls and so on. This is why Mohammad bin tulle
alone tried to invade one of the Asian countries for more
than 13 times during his reign. Like that there were so many mole emperors
who found the Asian countries to be a treasure land to fulfill all third interests
whenever they wanted by throwing a battle. It was not easy either. There was big resistance shown by each
single king of those nations too. Yet, it was not enough for the
massive number of troupes that were used to attack
the smaller countries. Size of those countries was not even up to
the size of a state as a matter of fact. One unanimous authority did not exist to
secure the people of Asia altogether. This was taken due advantage by the Middle
Eastern communities in the first place. There were special routes made to reach
Asia from Middle East through Pakistan. Silk route facilitated many trades
during those days, but that helped the west to cheat the east in
particular in the name of trading. In addition, that helped
the mole rulers to plunder away wealth from the
Asian countries at will. This is why historians termed
that route to be a silk route to reach Asia from the western countries
through Mediterranean Sea. With that said, it is needless to say
about the Vikings focus on the Middle Eastern countries in particular to
do selling and buying of the slaves. They had cultural ties with
the rulers of the Baghdad. Some of the beautiful men from
different parts of Europe who are fair skinned were in great demand here for
the afghans and the Arabian kings. They were able to get
it as and when they are interested in buying
some beautiful slaves. They were ready to pay any price for that. Especially wine is something that is
scarce in the middle east at that point of time but it was abundant in
fine quality in many parts of Europe. This was the next hot seller
in the Vikings trade. They traded in barrels that were
plundered from the European vineries. They stole and sold the valuables too. This was the benefit that they
were getting out of the invasions that they do often in the smaller
parts of the European countries. It all started with the British isles in the
first place, and then they were hopping islands just like that from Greenland to
Iceland and even all until the north Americas. This shows how strong as a community
they were scaling leaps and bounds in their attacking career
for four centuries together. Defense from the Europeans Charles Martin and Charlemagne were the
principle architects who were involved in constructing the best of the defensive
mechanisms against the attack of the Vikings. Yet, Vikings had three elements
as pivotal in their attack. That is surprise attack. Speed in their attack. Offensive attack is the third rule. This was not easy to overcome
for any military force that is already worn out after facing the
so many civil wars in Europe. It was Louis the pious who then took
initiatives to strengthen the coastal army’s further and ensured better safety
against the attack of the Vikings. Charles and bald had the
other best chances to offer protection to the
locals from their domains. It was only in 862 they
took key initiatives to counter the Vikings attacks, all until then they did
underestimate the capabilities of their enemies for
more than 65 odd years. Most of the key rivers were
taken into key consideration to build fortified bridges to
secure the place from attack.

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