Demographic structure of society – sex, gender, and sexual orientation | MCAT | Khan Academy


Voiceover: Sex, gender and
sexual orientation are all connected, but are also
important individually. The media often portrays gender and sexual orientation as a simple binary. Either you’re male or you’re female. Either you like men or you
like women, but there is so much more to this picture
than just two options. There are at least five
main considerations when examining a persons
gender and sexual orientation. There is the sex the person was born with, the gender they identify
as, the gender they express, the gender they are
romantically attracted to, and the gender they are
sexually attracted to. These are all part of a persons identity, and they don’t all have to align. Let’s break this down a bit. A persons sex is whether they are biologically, chromosomally,
male or female. Do they have two X
chromosomes, or an X and a Y? But, even that isn’t just a binary. There are intersex people who are born with one or three or more sex chromosomes, as opposed to the more common two, and so they express slightly different physical sex characteristics than their deployed two sex
chromosomes counter parts. Some intersex people are born with both male and female sex characteristics, due to unusual hormone levels. Ok, so, now that we have added a new layer of complexity to the sex of a person, let’s do the same to their gender. While sex is a biological factor, gender is a social construction. There are two main factors to gender, the gender you identify as, and the gender you express outwardly. It is probably easiest
to look at the people whose sex and gender do not correspond, to understand this fully. There are many possible
combinations of sex and gender. A person who is biologically
male, can either identify as male, which is considered cisgendered because their biological sex
and gender identity match, or they could identify as female, which is considered transgendered, because their biological sex and gender
identity don’t match. And then you have the
other factor of gender, namely which gender the
person expresses to the world. A cisgendered male can present either a socially male appearance, by adhering to the strict male guidelines, or they can present a socially female apprearance, by following the female guidelines, like wearing dresses or makeup. All these same options
are true for biologically female or intersex people as well. But, again, gender is not a binary. Some people identify as gender queer, meaning they don’t identify
as either male or female, or they can present as gender queer while identifying as male or female. There’s so many possibilities when looking at gender identity. Now that we have figured out the many possibilities of sex and gender, let’s take a look at sexual orientation. Sexual orientation is not dependent on the sex or gender of a person. Whom we are sexually attracted to can be as varied as how we identify. And there can be a difference between whom we are attracted to and
whom we have sex with. For example, you can be
attracted to any gender, but only have sex with females, or any combination of the gender
and sexual identities. You can be attracted to
all genders, or to none. It all depends on the person. The stereotype norm for people
in our society is straight, so you see here, if I
am biologically female I would identify and present as female, and I would be attracted to only males, and have sex with only males. And as it turns out in this
handy dandy chart I made, it makes a simple straight line
down through all the options, but, if I was cisgendered,
but was attracted to everyone and only had sex with
females, the line tracing my identity turns off the
straight and narrow. Whether or not sexual
orientation is a choice has been a topic of hot
debate for many years now. There’s so much talk of the
gay gene, but is it really so important that there
be a specific gay gene? What if a person who
doesn’t have the gay gene likes people of their own gender? Or, what if a person who
does have the gay gene likes people of the opposite gender? Does this make either of their preferences, their love, any less real? In today’s society,
discrimination based on gender and sexual orientation
happens almost everywhere. Discrimination is when different cateories of people are treated unjustly, simply because they belong to that category. In our western world, everyone begins life with a determined sex,
either male or female, and from the moment they are born, sometimes even earlier, society gives them messages about how they
should behave and think. And this shapes who
they will grow up to be. Girls should grow up to be feminine, and boys should grow up to be masculine. These gender roles are the
expectations of the proper behaviors, attitudes, and
activities of males and females. As though men and women only display one type of quality all the time. Girls are taught to be
soft, emotional, submissive, while boys are taught to be
aggressive, tough, dominant. Our society is inundated
by images from the media that tell us what we should be. It is very easy to see
these societal gender norms, just try breaking one of them and watch the responses you get. If you’re a female,
try spitting in public, or if you’re male try knitting on the bus. It is interesting to note that it seems worse for man to act feminine than it does for a woman to act masculine. The roles that are generally considered feminine, don’t have the same value in our society as traditionally
masculine roles. Taking care of a family,
typically considered a feminine role, is not as important as succeeding in a job,
which is traditionally considered a masculine role. Working mothers are considered ambitious, while people wonder why
a father would choose to stay at home and raise the kids. But that doesn’t mean that women have it easy in this patriarchal society. For the same job, men will get paid more than women with the same qualifications. Succeeding in school is often
attributed to intelligence in boys and to hard work
from girls, as though girls don’t have the innate
intelligence to succeed. A woman who prioritizes her job over her family is looked down upon, while a man is congratulated for the exact same behavior. On average, women tend
to live longer than men. Perhaps this is because
of biological factors, or perhaps because men are expected to take more risks and be
more daring than women. There are differences in certain disorders between men and women as well. Men are more likely to have
heart problems, while women are more likely to have
psychological disorders. This may not entirely be
due to biology though. Men tend to occupy high stress positions, which increases the
risk of heart problems. It is also seen as weak
for men to admit to having a psychological problem,
like depression or anxiety. Which means that even if a
man is depressed, he is less likely to seek help than a
woman in the same circumstance. Societal expectations affect
what problems will be reported, and where people will seek help. It is not just a persons gender that will determine how society reacts to them. It is also their sexual orientation. There are restrictions on the rights of homosexuals that don’t
apply to heterosexuals. And some people believe
that they should not be granted those same rights either, like the right to marry or to visit
their partner in the hospital. This discrimination often
brings up the question of whether homosexuality is a choice, or if people are born as they are. If it is genetic, then
sexual discrimination is as socially dysfunctional
as race, gender or disability based discrimination. At the same time, if it isn’t genetic, and is a choice or social construction, then it is still equally dysfunctional, because race itself is
a social construction. Our understanding of gender,
sex, and sexual orientation may seem thorough and
complete, but there is still a ton of research
into each of these topics, and we learn something more every year. Gender, sex, and sexual orientation are all independent of each other, and there are many combinations of the three. In our society, there is discrimination and segregation to spare for everyone, and perhaps by understanding the sources of it a bit better, we can help make everyone feel more welcome.

30 thoughts on “Demographic structure of society – sex, gender, and sexual orientation | MCAT | Khan Academy

  1. I am proud to be an American where at least I know I’m free.
    I’m not so sure about that statement anymore. The country is divided and Americans
    are becoming weak. America is dying.

    I was going to write this on government corruption, but I
    feel it’s much more important that the American people see what we have become.
    There needs to be change. There needs to be fight. We need to wake up before
    it’s too late.

    We have so many agendas being pushed on us, that its causing
    hate toward everyone. The women hate men, transgender hate cisgenders, blacks
    hate whites, there is no one not covered under any of these movements. I ask
    anyone reading this paper do you really give a flying fuck in space about any
    of this? Really does a person’s gender, race, sexual preference, any of these
    agendas make you feel any differently about someone else. I would venture to
    say that most of us never even thought about it until the agenda’s told us to.
    Yes, there are a select few that feel that anyone or anything “different” is
    evil, but most of the general public knows people like that are ignorant and
    closed minded. These agendas are put in place to tear the very fabric of a
    unified indivisible country apart. We need to rise above these differences. We
    are bigger than shaming, we are stronger than hate. This country was founded by
    immigrants. Different backgrounds, religions, genders, all moving to a place
    that felt like a new start. There were bumps along the way, there were issues,
    but we overcame it all. How? We banned together and fought those who oppressed
    us. How do we fix when we are oppressing each other? We accept one another, we
    ban together and refuse to allow agendas to be pushed on us. We take down the
    powers telling us these are issues. We are smarter than this, we know these
    aren’t issues that are real problems. These issues are solved by accepting each
    other. Look at someone who is different, don’t be afraid to ask how they are
    doing, be curious about how their life is different, see how they feel. Empathy
    goes a long way. It will reunite us. It could save us.

    We are also becoming weak. Movements to erase words like
    “bossy”, really? Have we become so childish that we cannot handle being called
    a name? There used to be a time when someone offended a person they were met
    with an intelligent argument or a polite FUCK YOU. Today political correctness
    is the thing, people much watch what they say and god forbid anyone is
    offended. Who cares! Difference in opinion is what drives intelligence. If we
    all agree then there is no reason to keep studying, and discovering. It seems
    as though working or fighting for anything isn’t allowed. Even making sure Mc
    Donald’s workers aren’t offended because of their pay is an important thing. Mc
    Donald’s was never meant to be a career goal. I notice and see so much that we
    as American’s have no desire to work or try anything. We are afraid to fail and
    want everything given to us, we rely on the government to take care of us. This
    makes us weak. We need to learn and fight for things.

    We are young America. We have or will have kids. We need to
    change things, for us and them. America is dying we are being groomed to be an
    America that follows. We need to go against what we are being told. We need to
    stand up. If we don’t like something we need to say something and not make an
    agenda about it. If police shoot someone without a good reason, we need to be
    angry that they are not following procedure and not being race into anything.
    If someone says something about someone else’s sexual preference, or gender
    identification stand tall and be proud. Fight for rally’s, education in
    schools. Decide to be that person to study this set of culture and have a
    psychology and sociology dedicated to it. Teach and wait for acceptance. Women
    need to step back and see that as they enter the male workforces that men are
    also entering female dominated work forces. They are also having to prove
    themselves and they do it with the same public doubt as women face. Forget this
    theory of privilege and class. Unite America! The day is coming for us to have
    to rise together. Slowly we have been torn apart. Change isn’t quick, it isn’t
    easy. Let’s change America, before it’s too late The day is coming.

  2. There were alot of misconceptions in this video.

    First of all, it is simply stated that "society" has these expectations. That is so black and white it is hilarious.

    Anyone that talks about society as if literally every family is the same, I wont take them seriously.

    Society doesn't have these so called expectations for no reason. Many of the traits mentioned can easily be confirmed by evolutionary biology.

    I am a Pansexual male. I am sexualy attracted to all but my strongest preference is for females. Romantically, also I am attracted to females.

    Having said that, I am an effeminate male. I have more estrogen and oxytocin than straight men do and less testosterone. I am a variant – not the norm. The norm IS straight.

    Gender Expression is a crappy concept and doesn't make sense since its all about preferences.

    Preferences are choices you can make. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity are NOT something you can choose.

    Which is why I say that Gender Expression is crap. Gender Expression is the only thing on this list that is completely social.

    The rest are all deeply rooted in biology.

  3. This is a good presentation but if only she spoke slower and not making that nose sound… I find it annoying to hear… Sorry.

  4. "Taking care of a family typically a feminine role, is not as important as succeeding in a job which traditionally considered is a masculine role". I'm genuinely asking, is this a fact? I'm talking more about the importance part because it sounds so much more like an opinion it's silly.

  5. I have literally started sewing on the bus and I'm a male. I got no weird looks except for a question about how often I accidentally stuck myself because of the bumpiness of the bus.

  6. I agree, this video is mostly opinions about what is and I'd not "expected" by society. Are men really congratulated for putting their job in front of their family while women arent? No. The job congratulates you regardless of sex and you are looked down upon for abandoning your kids regardless of sex.

  7. for. fuck. sakes. i dont think this retard has even done a simple google search, cos 30% of women are more likely to experience anxiety/depression compared to 20% of men, i found it on Beyond Blue

  8. No research exist that is conclusive on whether a person is born gay or straight, for that matter. And there is no conclusive research exist that a person can be born a gender other than the one he/she was born. Repetitive assertions and media campaigns don't make ideas truth. Sexuality is fluid. You can be gay tomorrow and straight next year and visa vera.

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