Conversation with Ndaba Mandela


FEMALE VOICE: FROM THE LIBRARY
OF CONGRESS IN WASHINGTON DC. GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYONE. MY NAME IS ROSWELL ENCINA, THE CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS
OFFICER FOR THE LIBRARY. WELCOME TO THE LIBRARY
OF CONGRESS TODAY. WE’RE EXCITED TO HOST A
WONDERFUL CONVERSATION, THE NEW BOOK “GOING TO THE MOUNTAIN” WAS
JUST RELEASED YESTERDAY. AND WE’RE HONORED TO WELCOME
THE AUTHOR, THE GRANDSON OF GLOBAL HUMANITARIAN
AND FORMER PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA, MANDELA AND
HIS GRANDSON, NDABA MANDELA. FIRST, I WANT TO THANK
MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND STAFF AND LIBRARY STAFF WHO
ARE HERE THIS AFTERNOON. ALSO THANK YOU TO OUR PARTNERS
WITH THE SOUTH AFRICA EMBASSY TO HELP TO SPREAD THE WORD
OF TODAY’S DISCUSSION. I WANT TO ENCOURAGE YOU
TO VISIT THE DISPLAY AT THE FOYER ON THE WAY OUT. YOU SAW IT ON THE WAY IN. ON THE DISPLAY ARE LIBRARY
OF MANDELA COLLECTIONS, INCLUDING HIS BOOKS,
WORKS, CHILDREN’S BOOKS, AND A LOT OF OTHER STUFF. TODAY WE’RE KICKING OFF
A LOT OF FUN ACTIVITIES THAT WILL BE KICKING OFF
AT THE LIBRARY THIS SUMMER. THIS MORNING, WE
DID MEDIA PREVIEW OF OUR BASEBALL AMERICANA. THAT EXHIBIT OPENS THIS FRIDAY. HAPPENING THIS SUMMER
AND IN A COUPLE OF WEEKS, WE’LL BE STARTING THE SUMMER
FILM SENTENCE COINCIDENTALLY, NOT COINCIDENTALLY, ACTUALLY. WE’LL BE SCREENING
FIELD OF DREAMS OUTSIDE AND WE’LL START THE SUMMER
CONCERTS ON THE LAWN. IT’S A BUSY SUMMER
HERE AT THE LIBRARY. WE HOPE YOU’LL COME BACK. NOW TO TODAY’S EVENT,
FOLLOWING THE CONVERSATION, THERE WILL BE A BOOK SIGNING IN THE WOOD ITALL PAVILION
NEXT DOOR AND BOOKS WILL BE ON SALE FOR YOU TO PURCHASE. WE ASK YOU TO SILENCE YOUR
CELL PHONES OR TURN THEM OFF. THE SPECIAL GUEST IS THE AUTHOR
OF “GOING TO THE MOUNTAIN — LIFE LESSONS FROM MY GRAND
PHAT,” NELSON MANDELA. THE STORY OF NELSON
MANDELA IS HIS STORY AND HOPING IT WILL
BE YOUR STORY. HE’S CONTINUING HIS
GRANDFATHER’S LEGACY AS CO-CHAIRMAN OF A
ORGANIZATION DEDICATED TO CREATE A POSITIVE IMAGE
FOR AFRICA AROUND THE GLOBE AND INCREASE GROWTH IN
EDUCATIONAL, EMPLOYMENT, AND INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCES. WELCOME TO THE LIBRARY OF
CONGRESS, NDABA MANDELA AND THE 14th DIRECTOR
OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, DR. CARLA HAYDEN. [ APPLAUSE ]>>THANK YOU. OH, WOW. THIS IS SUCH A TREAT. AND IT’S EVEN MORE OF A TREAT BECAUSE YOUR BOOK JUST
CAME OUT YESTERDAY.>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>AND I GOT A CHANCE
TO READ IT LAST NIGHT. SO, WE’RE GOING TO DO — BE ABLE
TO TALK ABOUT THE BOOK AND SOME OF THE THINGS IN THERE. SO WE JUST THANK
YOU FOR BEING HERE.>>MANDELA: AN ABSOLUTE
PLEASURE TO BE HERE.>>HAYDEN: HAVE YOU BEEN
TO WASHINGTON, D.C. BEFORE?>>MANDELA: I HAVE, I ATTENDED
THE BLACK CAUCUS TWICE.>>HAYDEN: YOU CAN CLAP. SO, WELL, IN THE BOOK,
LET’S JUST GET TO IT — HAVING THE LAST NAME MANDELA
AND WHAT IT MEANS TO YOU, IS THERE A LOT OF
PRESSURE OR RESPONSIBILITY?>>MANDELA: OF COURSE,
OF COURSE. I THINK PEOPLE HAVE A
LOT OF EXPECTATIONS, YOU KNOW, OF BEING A MANDELA. OF COURSE, YOU KNOW, THEY
CONSTANTLY WANT TO PUT YOU IN THE FOOTSTEPS
OF NELSON MANDELA. AND WANT TO KNOW
WHAT ARE YOU DOING FOR YOUR COMMUNITY, YOU KNOW? LUCKILY, I AM DOING
SOMETHING FOR MY COMMUNITY, THROUGH MY FOUNDATION WHERE ALL
OF OUR EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY AND
CELEBRATING AFRICAN CULTURE. AND DEVELOPED ENTREPRENEURS
IN THE VILLAGES. YEAH.>>HAYDEN: YOU MENTIONED
TECHNOLOGY. HOW DO YOU BRING THAT IN?>>MANDELA: SO BASICALLY WE’RE
RUNNING A THREE-MONTH COMPUTER CODING PROGRAM. WE HAVE — WE’RE TRAINING
50 YOUTH, 40 IN HIGH SCHOOL AND THE OTHER 20
UNEMPLOYUNEMPLOYED YOUTH. ONE OF THE BIGGEST
CHALLENGES THAT WE FACE IN AFRICA IS WE HAVE 60% TO
70% OF OUR YOUTH UNEMPLOYED. AND UP TO MORE THAN 60%
OF THEM ARE UNEMPLOYABLE. THEY DON’T HAVE THE SKILLS
TO ACTUALLY BE EMPLOYED. SO WE ARE TRYING TO DO THAT THROUGH TEACHING
THEM HOW TO DO CODING. AND THEY WRITE AN EXAM WITH
ORACLE AFTER THREE MONTHS. THEY THEN QUALIFY
FOR THE QUALIICATION AND THEN WE FIND THEM JOBS.>>HAYDEN: AFTER THREE MONTHS.>>MANDELA: YES. VERY BASIC.>>HAYDEN: WOW, THAT’S
QUITE SOMETHING.>>MANDELA: THEY HAVE A
SKILL, THEY HAVE A CERTIFICATE THAT PROVES THEY’RE PROFICIENT IN THAT PARTICULAR
MODEL, ENTRY LEVEL.>>HAYDEN: NOW, SPEAKING OF
JUMPING RIGHT INTO THE BOOK, AS A YOUNG MAN, AND I CAN SEE WHERE TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN A
THREAD, YOU WERE VERY MUCH INTO CERTAIN VIDEO GAMES? YOU MAY SAY WHICH ONES?>>MANDELA: NORMAL ONES.>>HAYDEN: REALLY.>>MANDELA: SPORTS, MUSIC.>>HAYDEN: MUSIC. IT WAS INTERESTING TO HEAR
YOU DESCRIBE HIP-HOP AND ALL OF THE THINGS LIKE THAT.>>MANDELA: I WAS VERY LUCKY. MY OLDER BROTHER, HE
GREW UP IN LONDON. SO WHEN I WAS 17, HE WAS
PLAYING PUBLIC ENEMY. THE FAT BOYS.>>HAYDEN: THE FAT BOYS?>>MANDELA: YES? AND, OF COURSE, COOL J RAP. AND SO, YOU KNOW, HE’S AN OLDER
BROTHER AND I REALLY LOOKED UP TO HIM, I REALLY FOLLOWED HIM AND THE TEAM HE SUPPORTED,
THE LOCAL TEAM. AND IN TERMS OF THE
MUSIC IN THIS INSTANCE. THE LABEL THAT HE LIKED, HE WAS
REALLY A GREAT INFLUENCE FOR ME AT THOSE FORMATIVE
YEARS, TO BE HONEST. AND, I OF COURSE IDENTIFIED
FROM HIP-HOP BECAUSE WE COME FROM A HISTORY OF FIGHTING
THE POWERS THAT BE, FIGHTING AGAINST THE SYSTEM,
FIGHTING AGAINST APARTHEID. SO ENWHICH YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT
BEING A REBEL, IT’S SOMETHING THAT IN MY BLOOD IT COMES
FROM THE GENERATIONS. HE HIMSELF WAS A REBEL AND HIS
FATHER HIMSELF WAS A REBEL. BASICALLY MY GRANDFATHER
WAS BORN IN A RURAL VILLAGE. AND THEN HIS FATHER
GOT IN DISPUTE WITH ONE OF THE — GOT IN TO A DISPUTE. AND BASICALLY PUNISHED
THE GENTLEMEN AND TOOK IT. AND HE WENT TO THE
WHITE MAGISTRATE TO REPORT THIS MATTER. AND SO THEY — THEY BASICALLY
DENOUNCED OR REMOVED THEM FROM OUR GREAT GRANDFATHER. SO HE LEFT AND MOVED BECAUSE HE
WOULDN’T GIVE BACK THE CAPITAL, BECAUSE HE SAID, YOU HAVE
NOTHING TO DO WITH THIS. YOU DO NOT KNOW HOW
I RULE MY AREA. YOU HAVE NO RIGHT TO COME AND TELL ME HOW I
SHOULD GOVERN MY AREA. SO PLEASE GET AWAY. HE TOLD HIM TO — TO LEAVE
HIM ALONE, BASICALLY. SO THEY BASICALLY CAME
WITH POLICE, ETC. , ETC. , AND THEY REMOVED HIM FORCIBLY. SO HE SETTLED IN KUNU. AND MY GRANDFATHER GREW
UP, YOU KNOW, SEEING HIM. BUT ANOTHER THING HE WAS I
GUESS ATTRIBUTED TO IS WE COME FROM THE RURAL KINGDOM AND
WE COME FROM THE FOUR PARTS. SO WE ARE A POLYGAMIST NATION. SO THE FIRST WIFE
IS THE GREAT HOUSE, THE SECOND WIFE IS
THE RIGHT-HAND HOUSE. THE THIRD WIFE IS
THE LEFT-HAND HOUSE, AND WE COME FROM THE FOURTH
HOUSE, WHICH IS A JUNIOR HOUSE. AND EVERY WIFE AFTER THAT
COMES FROM A JUNIOR HOUSE.>>AND IN THE FOURTH HOUSE
SEEMED TO BE THE HOUSE THAT MEDIATED BETWEEN
THE OTHER HOUSES?>>THAT IS CORRECT. SO OUR JOB FROM THE FOURTH HOUSE
WAS TO BE MEDIATORS AMONGST ALL OF THE HOUSES, ESPECIALLY
AMONGST THE FIRST TWO HOUSES BECAUSE THEY’RE ALWAYS
FIGHTING OVER THE CROWN. AND THEN TO BE COUNSELOR
TO THE KING. SO, YOU SEE, NELSON MANDELA
DID NOT FALL FROM THE HEAVENS AND BECOME A GREAT PEACEMAKER, IT IS IN HIS BLOOD,
YOU UNDERSTAND. THAT IS WHAT HE WAS ESSENTIALLY
RAISED TO DO, TO BECOME.>>HAYDEN: THAT’S
AN INTERESTING IDEA OF HOW YOUR GRANDFATHER
DEVELOPED AND WHAT HE BROUGHT WITH HIM. YOU MENTIONED, AND THE NAME OF
THE BOOK REFERS TO SOMETHING.>>MANDELA: YES.>>HAYDEN: GOING
TO THE MOUNTAIN.>>MANDELA “GOING TO THE
MOUNTAIN” REFERS TO TWO THINGS. FIRSTLY, IN OUR CULTURE,
WE HAVE A RIGHT OF PASSAGE WHERE YOU MOVE FROM BEING
A BOY TO BEING A MAN AND THAT IS CIRCUMCISION. WE ARE CIRCUMCISED BETWEEN
THE AGES OF 18 AND 21. BECAUSE WE DON’T
BELIEVE YOU CAN BE A MAN AT THE AGE WHEN YOU’RE BORN. YOU KNOW, USUALLY
HERE IN THE WORLD, YOU GET CIRCUMCISED
WHEN YOU’RE BORN.>>HAYDEN: SPOILER ALERT, THERE’S AN ENTIRE CHAPTER
ON YOUR EXPERIENCE. (LAUGHTER)>>MANDELA: FOR US,
IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND FIRSTLY
HOW TO BECOME A MAN, YOU HAVE TO EARN THE
RIGHTS TO BECOME A MAN. YOU DON’T JUST BECOME — TURN
21 AND NOW YOU’RE REGARDED AS AN ADULT, NO, YOU
HAVE TO EARN THIS RIGHT. YOU UNDERSTAND? AND THAT’S THE FIRST THING
THAT HAPPENS IS THE CHOP –>>HAYDEN: LET’S JUST
SAY, THAT WAS THE — AT NIGHT, YOU’RE READING
THIS AND GOING OKAY. I COULDN’T STOP READING.>>MANDELA: THAT’S THE
FIRST — (LAUGHTER)>>MANDELA: THAT’S REFERS TO THE CIRCUMCISION
PROCESS WE GO THROUGH. IT’S RICH. BECAUSE YOU GET TO UNDERSTAND
WHO YOU ARE, YOUR HISTORY, YOUR HERITAGE, YOUR SPIRITUAL
BEING IN TERMS OF HOW YOU RELATE TO OTHER TRIBES AND OTHER CLANS. AND SECOND, THE CHALLENGES, THE JOURNEY THAT ALL
YOUNG BLACK PEOPLE IN THIS WORLD, PEOPLE
OF MINORITY. WE FACE AN ENORMOUS TASK. YOU HAVE TO GO AND
APPLY TO COLLEGE. YOU HAVE TO MAKE SURE YOU
GET ENOUGH GOOD GRADES TO APPLY TO COLLEGE. AND THEN WHEN YOU’RE GET —
WHEN YOU GET INTO COLLEGE, HOW ARE YOU GOING TO PAY
FOR THE TUITION FEES? AND WHEN YOU FINISH
COLLEGE, HOW ARE YOU GOING TO PAY BACK THOSE TUITION FEES? AND NOW YOU MUST
BEGIN YOUR CAREER. SO THESE ARE ALL LITERAL
MOUNTAINS THAT WE’RE FACING AS YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE WORLD
BECAUSE OUR JOB IS MUCH HARDER THAN THE AVERAGE WHITE
WESTERNER WHO HAS GROWN UP IN THIS PRIVILEGED
WORLD, YOU SEE. SO THIS IS WHAT GOING
TO THE MOUNTAIN MEANS. AND AS NELSON MANDELA SAID,
AFTER CLIMBING A GREAT HILL, AND YOU REACH THE TOP OF THAT
HILL, YOU REALIZE THERE ARE SO MANY MORE MOUNTAINS TO CLIMB.>>HAYDEN: AND YOU HAVE THE
PERSON THAT WE ALL REVERE AND WE KNOW HIS PUBLIC PERSONA. WHEN YOU WERE 11, YOU
WENT TO LIVE WITH HIM.>>MANDELA: YES.>>HAYDEN: WHAT WAS —
JUST TELL US ABOUT THAT.>>MANDELA: YES, I WAS LIVING
IN A GHETTO IN JOHANNESBURG. AND SO ONE DAY, THIS GENTLEMAN
CAME, MY GRANDFATHER’S DRIVER, AND HE SAID, I’VE BEEN
SENT BY GRANDFATHER TO COME AND FETCH YOU. COME, LET’S GO. THAT WAS — I HAD ONLY MET MY
GRANDFATHER ONCE BEFORE IN 1990. THIS IS THREE YEARS LATER.>>HAYDEN: WAS HE
IN PRISON THEN? RIGHT?>>MANDELA: WE MET HIM JUST
BEFORE HE CAME OUT OF PRISON. AND THIS IS THREE YEARS LATER, NEVER SAW HIM, NEVER
HEARD FROM HIM. ALL OF A SUDDEN, A DRIVER
TOOK HIM AND WAS SENT BY HIM. I’M HOME ALONE BECAUSE
I’M AT HOME AT 3:00 P.M. MY PARENTS GET
HOME AT 7:00 P.M. FROM WORK. SO I’M NOT GOING TO GO WITHOUT
THE APPROVAL OF MY PARENTS. NO CELL PHONES IN THOSE DAYS. DO YOU KNOW WHO YOUR
GRANDFATHER IS? ARE YOU CRAZY? DO I NEED TO LOSE MY JOB? PLEASE, LET’S GO! I SAID, NO, SIR, I
CANNOT.E GAVE UP. MY PARENTS CAME HOME
THAT EVENING AND I TOLD MY FATHER WHAT
HAD TRANSPIRED AND HE SAID, YOU KNOW, IF THAT MAN COMES
AGAIN, YOU SHOULD GO WITH HIM. LO AND BEHOLD, THAT MAN CAME
BACK THE VERY SAME WEEK. AND I WENT TO THEM AND HE TOOK
ME TO MY GRANDFATHER’S HOUSE, WHICH WAS THIS BIG HOUSE,
A MANSION IN A WHITE SUBURB IN THE NORTHERN SUBURBS OF
JOHANNESBURG, AND, YOU KNOW, BASICALLY MY GRANDFATHER TOLD ME THAT HE WOULD BE SENDING
MY PARENTS TO COLLEGE AND WHILE THEY WERE AT COLLEGE,
THEY NEEDED TO FOCUS ON SCHOOL AND HE WAS GOING TO LOOK
AFTER ME DURING THAT TIME. I SLEPT OVER THAT DAY. MY FATHER CAME THE NEXT DAY
AND HE SAID, YEAH, WELL, THIS IS WHAT MY FATHER HAS
DECIDED — YOUR GRANDFATHER — AND THIS IS WHAT’S
GOING TO HAPPEN. AS A YOUNG PERSON IN
ANY AFRICAN FAMILY, YOU DON’T HAVE MUCH CHOICE. YOU DO AS YOU’RE TOLD. AND SO THAT’S WHAT HAPPENS. AND NOW FROM A GHETTO,
FROM SLEEPING, EATING RICE AND TOMATO SAUCE, THAT WAS MY
STAPLE DIET, BECAUSE WE GREW UP IN A POOR HOME, TO
MOVING INTO THIS MANSION WHERE THERE ARE CHEFS, DRIVERS,
SECURITY, GARDINERS, STAFF, STAFF, STAFF, STAFF, STAFF.>>HAYDEN: YOU MENTIONED
YOU FELT LIKE “THE FRESH PRINCE OF BELL AIR.”>>MANDELA: KIND OF WAS
LIKE THAT, YOU KNOW? TO BE HONEST? YOU WENT AND THERE YOU WERE. AND THERE HE WAS. BUT A PRIVATE PERSON THAT MOST
OF US COULD NEVER IMAGINE. WHAT WAS THAT LIKE?>>HE WAS ACTUALLY — THE
FIRST CUP ALL OF YEARS, THERE WASN’T MUCH
CONVERSATION HAPPENING. HE WAS A DISCIPLINARIAN. HE TOLD ME EVERY TIME
MY ROOM WAS IN A MESS. THINGS THAT REVOLVED
AROUND SCHOOL, WHAT I NEEDED FOR SCHOOL, BOOKS,
UNIFORMS, SPORTS, ALL ABOUT HOW THE
REPORT CARD WAS LOOKING. NOT MUCH OUTSIDE OF
SCHOOL STUFF, BASICALLY. AND I REMEMBER ONCE,
I LOST MY JERSEY — MY SCHOOL JERSEY
FOR THE SECOND TIME. AND, OF COURSE, I HAD TO
TELL HIM, I NEEDED A NEW ONE. I WENT AND I TOLD HIM
AND I WAS VERY NERVOUS. HE CHANGED HIS FACE
ALL OF A SUDDEN. TONIGHT YOU’RE GOING
TO SLEEP OUTSIDE! OH, OKAY. OUT I WENT, OUTSIDE. I WAS PLAYING SOCCER
IN THE GARAGE. IRS AT FIRST, IT
WAS KIND OF OKAY. STARTED TO GET COLD, DARK. I SAW THE COOK BRING
ME BLANKETS. SHE GAVE ME THE BLANKET
AND I THOUGHT, OH, MY GOD, I’M REALLY GOING
TO SLEEP OUTSIDE. MAYBE 20 MINUTES, I MAKE
MY LITTLE BED ON THE GRASS. AND THEN 20 MINUTES LATER I CAME
UP AND HE CALLED ME AND HE SAID IF YOU EVER LOSE ANOTHER JERSEY, YOU WILL DEFINITELY SLEEP
OUTSIDE, NOW GO INSIDE, HAVE YOUR DINNER AND
GO STRAIGHT TO BED. IT WAS KIND OF HARSH
BUT IT WORKED. I NEVER LOST ANOTHER JERSEY.>>YOU HAVE THAT RELATIONSHIP WHERE HE MENTIONED HE
WAS THE DISCIPLINARIAN. IN HINDSIGHT, DO YOU
THINK THAT YOU NEEDED IT?>>OF COURSE, OF COURSE. I WAS A LITTLE KNUCKLE
HEAD BACK THEN. I JUST WANTED TO HAVE
FUN AND FUN AND MORE FUN. WHETHER IT WAS — WASN’T PLAY
STATION BACK THEN, IT WAS SAGA. YOU KNOW? OR SOCCER. YOU KNOW? THAT WAS —
OR WATCHING A MOVIE. I’D GO TO HIM ON
FRIDAY, SATURDAY, HEY, CAN I HAVE 50 RAND TO GO
WATCH A MOVIE WITH MY FRIENDS. AND HE WOULD ALWAYS GIVE ME. NOT ONE TIME HE SAID NO.>>HAYDEN: SO THERE WAS
A SOFTNESS UNDER THERE.>>MANDELA: YES.>>HAYDEN: I WROTE THIS
DOWN, TO BE THE FATHER OF A NATION WAS A GREAT
HONOR BUT TO BE FATHER OF A FAMILY WAS A GREAT JOY,
A JOY I HAD FAR TOO LITTLE OF. AND IN THE YEARS OF
IMPRISONMENT, HE MISSED THAT. SO WITH YOU HE HAD AN
OPPORTUNITY TO DO IT.>>I GUESS SO. I GUESS SO. I MEAN, I ALSO STAYED WITH
MY GRANDMOTHER A LITTLE BIT, GRANDMA WINNIE. HE COULD HAVE SENT ME
TO GO STAY WITH HER. OR MY REAL GRANDMOTHER
FROM THE FIRST MARRIAGE, HIS FIRST WIFE WAS STILL ALIVE. MY AUNT WAS STILL AROUND. BUT HE DECIDED TO TAKE
ME IN AND STAY WITH HIM. HE HAD OPTIONINGS BUT
HE DECIDED I’M GOING TO DISCIPLINE THIS YOUNG MAN, I’M GOING TO SHOW
HIM THE WAY OF LIFE. SO PERHAPS THAT WAS HIS WAY OF
MAKING SOME SORT OF, YOU KNOW, COMPENSATION OR RESTITUTION
OR WHAT — BE THE FATHER FIGURE THAT HE
NEVER HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO DO THAT BECAUSE HE HAD TO MAKE
THE ULTIMATE SACRIFICE. UNFORTUNATELY. INSTEAD OF TAKING HIS
KID TO GO RIDE BIKES, HE HAD TO GO ORGANIZE
PEACEFUL PROTESTS AND MARCHES AND STRATEGIZE HOW TO KEEP THE
ANC ALIVE WHILE IT WAS BAD. HE HAD SO MANY THINGS TO
DO TO FOCUS ON TB COUNTRY. SO HE HAD TO MAKE A
VERY HARD DECISION. SATISFY HIS FAMILY OR FIVE
PEOPLE OR THE GREATER GOOD OR 4 MILLION OR 5 MILLION.>>AND YOU MENTIONED THAT
IN PRIVATE HE WAS SOME OF THE THINGS THAT WE COULD
SEE — HUMBLE AND FORGIVING. AND HE HAD A SENSE
OF HUMOR, THOUGH.>>MANDELA: GREAT
SENSE OF HUMOR. HE WAS MISCHIEVOUS WITH HIS
HUMOR, TO BE HONEST WITH YOU. ONE TIME I HAD ASKED A FEMALE
FRIEND TO COME OVER FOR LUNCH. AND SO HE SAYS, OH,
NICE TO MEET YOU. SO DID YOU PROPOSE
TO MY GRANDSON?>>HAYDEN: OKAY.>>MANDELA: YOU CAN IMAGINE
THE YOUNG LADY BLUSHING.>>HAYDEN: SHE DIDN’T KNOW WHAT.>>MANDELA: HE WAS ALWAYS
TRYING TO THROW ME — LIKE, HEY, HAVE YOU
SEEN MINUTE GRANDSON. I WAS A BIT TOO YOUNG. BECAUSE YOU USED TO HAVE — MISS
SOUTH AFRICA WOULD COME OVER, MISS UNIVERSE WOULD COME OVER,
MISS WORLD WOULD COME OVER. I WAS IN AWE BUT I WAS
WAY TOO I DON’T THINK. I COULDN’T REALLY HANG. HE DIDN’T CARE. HE WOULD BE JUST LIKE, HEY,
DID YOU SEE MY GRANDSON? THAT WAS PRETTY NICE.>>HAYDEN: SO DURING THIS TIME, HE BECAME PRESIDENT
OF THE NATION. WERE YOU AWARE OF THOSE
— HE WAS WORKING WITH YOU AND BEING PART OF YOUR
LIFE, BUT HE WAS HELPING TO BUILD THE NATION AGAIN?>>MANDELA: YES,
HE WAS VERY BUSY. HE TRAVELLED A LOT, OF COURSE. THERE WERE MANY WEEKS
I DIDN’T SEE HIM. IT WAS FUN, I COULD
GET AWAY WITH MURDER. I COULD PLAY GAMES UNTIL
2:00 IN THE MORNING. AND NO ONE WOULD SAY ANYTHING. BUT WHEN HE WAS HOME,
HEY, THE CHIEF IS HOME. YOU HAD TO KEEP EVERYTHING
IN LINE. BUT THE ONE THING I REALIZED
ABOUT HIM IS THAT THAT’S A MAN WITH SO MUCH COMPASSION FOR
PEOPLE, FOR ORDINARY PEOPLE. YOU CAN IMAGINE —
MICHAEL JACKSON HAD BEEN TO OUR HOME TWICE. EVEN FORMER PRESIDENT
BUSH, EVANDER HOLYFIELD, MIKE TYSON, YOU NAME IT. AND ALL THESE PEOPLE THAT VISITED US HE TREATED THE
SAME WAY AS MAMA KOLI WHO COOKED FOR US, ALSO AS THE
GARDENER AND THE DRIVER. ONE THING NELSON MANDELA
UNDERSTOOD SIMILAR TO MARTIN LUTHER KING,
YOU DON’T JUDGE PEOPLE BY THEIR SKIN COLOR, THEIR
AGE, RACE, SEXUALITY. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT EACH
PERSON HAS THE POTENTIAL TO ACHIEVE GREATNESS AND
WE SHOULD ALLOW THAT PERSON TO HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO
ACHIEVE THE GREATNESS THEY WANT TO ACHIEVE FOR THEMSELVES. [ APPLAUSE ]>>HAYDEN: YOU MENTIONED HE
TREATED EVERYONE THE SAME. I WAS REALLY TAKEN WITH HIS
PHONE CALL WITH QUEEN ELIZABETH. WE THINK OF HER>>MANDELA: I KNOW, I KNOW. IT’S SOMETHING THAT SHE
WAS ALSO VERY MISCHIEVOUS WITH GRANDFATHER. I REMEMBER ONE AFTERNOON — NOT
SURE I SHOULD TELL THIS STORY.>>HAYDEN: OH, DO.>>MANDELA: IT’S A BIT LATE NOW. A BIT LATE GRAND DAD, PLEASE
FORGIVE ME FOR THIS ONE. WE WERE HAVING LUNCH, ME,
MY GRANDFATHER AND AUNTIE — MAMA KOLI COMES AND THE
PHONE NUMBER COMES IN. WE USED TO CALL HIM
FATHER — TATA — IT’S QUEEN ELIZABETH
ON THE LINE. PUT HER THROUGH,
PUT HER THROUGH. AND THEN THE PHONE COMES. HE PICKS IT UP. HELLO, ELIZABETH, HOW ARE YOU? (LAUGHTER) AND THEY
HAVE A CONVERSATION. THEY TALK, THEY TALK. YOU KNOW, EVENTUALLY, BYE, BYE. AND HOW CAN YOU CALL
THE QUEEN BY HER NAME, YOU HAVE TO SAY YOUR IMAGESTY! AND HE TURNED TO HER AND SAY,
WHY, SHE CALLS ME NELSON? [ APPLAUSE ]>>HAYDEN: WOW.>>MANDELA: WE ALWAYS CALL
EACH OTHER BY OUR FIRST NAME. DO YOU FORGET I’M A PRINCE. DO YOU FORGET I’M
A PRINCE, DARLING? HMM? WHERE IS THE LOYALTY HERE.>>HAYDEN: WOW. SO YOU HAVE THE PRIVATE SIDE
AND YOU KNOW ABOUT HIS LEGACY. THAT’S WHY SO MANY PEOPLE ARE
HERE AND WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU ABOUT HOW SOME OF THE LESSONS THAT YOU THINK CAN
BE APPLIED TODAY. THERE WAS A LOT ABOUT
RECONCILIATION, AND BEING ABLE TO LET GO OF, NOW, NEVER TO FORGET THE HATE,
BUT TO LET THINGS GO. TO RECONCILE.>>MANDELA: YES, YOU KNOW, I THINK NELSON MANDELA OBVIOUSLY
HE TRIED THE PEACEFUL WAY. RIGHT? A PEACEFUL MARCH. BUT HE SAYS IN AN INTERVIEW
THAT ALL THE PEACEFUL MARCHES, IMPORTANT AS THEY WERE, THEY
WERE ONLY MET WITH VIOLENCE AND SAVAGE ATTACKS
BY THE GOVERNMENT. SO THEY DECIDED TO NOW
TAKE UP MILITARY ACTION AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. AND SO HE BECAME THE
FIRST COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE MILITARY ARM OF THE ANC. HE TRAINED IN ALGERIA
FOR SIX MONTHS. AND SIX MONTHS WITH AN EMPEROR. AND HE CAME BACK AND STARTED
OBVIOUSLY HITTING BACK AT THE ENEMY. BUT THEY DIDN’T OBVIOUSLY
ATTACK PEOPLE. THEY ATTACKED THE INFRASTRUCTURE
OF THEIR GOVERNMENTS. SO THEY ATTACKED THE POWER
LINES, THE POWER STATIONS, THEY ATTACKED THE TELEPHONE
INFRASTRUCTURE, BASICALLY. BUT, OF COURSE, THERE WERE
CASUALTIES AS IS IN ANY WAR. CAPTURED AND SPENT
TIME IN PRISON. HE GOT TO SEE THE
INDEPENDENCE THAT WAS HAPPENING ACROSS AFRICA, FROM 1960 GHANA
TO 1980 IN ZIMBABWE AND MOST OF THE COUNTRIES WERE
GAINING INDEPENDENCE IN AFRICA WERE GOING
THROUGH CIVIL WAR. AND I THINK HE REALLY WANTED
TO STOP THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE THAT WAS REALLY EATING AWAY
AT OUR COUNTRY, OUR SOCIETY. AND AS HE CAME OUT, HE
DECIDED TO OBVIOUSLY, YOU KNOW, FORGIVE HIS CAPTORS. FORGIVE THOSE PEOPLE WHO
TRESPASS AGAINST HIM, YOU KNOW? AND THE ONE THING THAT I HAVE
TO ASK MYSELF IS, FIRST OF ALL, THAT IS ONE SUPER
UNNATURAL THING TO DO, BECAUSE IF I WAS THERE FOR FIVE
YEARS, EVEN, LET ALONE 27 YEARS, FIVE YEARS, I WOULD COME OUT
WITH THE VENGEANCE AND THE ANGER OF — OF A GORILLA, RIGHT? AND I WOULD WANT TO
BLAST ALL OF MY ENEMIES. BUT HE DIDN’T. WHICH IS SOMETHING
VERY UNNATURAL. SECONDLY, A LOT OF COUNTRIES — LEADERS WHO WERE CAUGHT WERE
KILLED IN INCARCERATION. THEY DIDN’T LAST LONG. SO HOW COME NELSON
MANDELA WAS NOT KILLED? WHY WAS NELSON MANDELA SPARED? AND THE ONLY ANSWER THAT I CAN
COME TO IS THAT GOD SAVED HIM. THAT GOD WAS THE ONE WHO WAS
ON THE SIDE AND KEPT HIM ALIVE FOR A SPECIFIC PURPOSE
THAT HE HAD TO PLAY AFTER HE CAME OUT OF PRISON. AND SO HE UNDERSTOOD
THAT THEY NEEDED TO CURE THIS VICIOUS
CYCLE OF VIOLENCE THAT WAS TAKING OUR COUNTRY. AND HE AND BISHOP TUTU
CAME UP WITH THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION TALKS
THAT CAME OUT OF THE 90s, THOSE WHO HAD LOST
LOVED ONES, TORTURED, WRONGFULLY INCARS
RATED FOR MANY YEARS — INCARCERATED FOR MANY YEARS
TO SIT WITH THEIR VICTIMS AND HAVE SOME SORT OF
RESTORITIVE JUSTICE AND FOR THE PERPETRATORS BE
ABLE TO DEVOLVE EVERY BIT OF INFORMATION IN
RETURN FOR AMNESTY. A LOT OF PEOPLE FEEL THAT
IT WASN’T REALLY SUCCESSFUL. BUT I THINK IT REALLY
LAY THE FOUNDATION TO TRY AND GET THE BALL ROLLING
FOR A NEW DISPEN SAYINGS, FOR A NEW COUNTRY, CALL
IT THE RAINBOW NATION. THAT WOULD BE — AND THEN PEOPLE
UNDERSTOOD THE VALUE OF PEACE AND HARMONY OVER THE
CONTINUED VIOLENCE THAT THEY’D BEEN EXPERIENCING
FOR SO MANY DECADES. AND I THINK IT WAS JUST
HIS WAY OF TRYING TO — TO AMEND AND TO — AND
TO ELIMINATE HIS ENEMIES. YOU KNOW? BECAUSE ONE OF
THE THINGS YOU SAID WAS THAT IN ORDER TO DEFEAT
YOUR ENEMY, YOU MUST WORK WITH YOUR UH ENEMY, BECAUSE
THEN HE BECOMES YOUR PARTNER.>>HAYDEN: AND HE HAD YOU
LEARN AFTERRY KAN — AFRIKKAN.>>MANDELA: I DIDN’T LEARN IT. I DID LEARN A LITTLE BIT PCHLT
THERE ARE MANY AFRIKKAN SPEAKING PEOPLE HERE? NO. I WAKE UP IN THE MORNING,
HE WOULD BE IN THE LOUNGE, HE WOULD READ THE
NEWSPAPERS BACK-TO-BACK. HE WAS VERY FLUENT IN AFRIKKANS. READING AND WRITING. SO MUCH SO THAT EVEN IN JAIL,
THE WARDEN THAT WAS LOOKING AFTER THE CELL HAD TO BE
CHANGED EVERY THREE MONTHS BECAUSE WHAT THEY FOUND WAS THAT
NELSON MANDELA WOULD BE ABLE TO REALLY CONNECT
WITH ANY HUMAN BEING, INCLUDING THE GUARDS, RIGHT? INCLUDING THE GUARDS. SO HOW HE DID IT IS THAT THE
GUARDS WOULD RECEIVE LETTERS FROM THE LOVED ONES, BUT THEY
WERE NOT AS EDUCATED AS HE WAS IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE. SO HE WOULD TRANSLATE THE
LETTERS FOR THE WARDEN THAT WERE LOOKING AFTER HIM. AND THEN HE WAS VERY
HAPPY HE UNDERSTANDS AND NOW HE WOULD CONVINCE THEM TO SMUGGLE HIM AN EXTRA FEW
SLICES OF BREAD, AN EXTRA COUPLE OF ORANGES AND FRUITS,
AN EXTRA BLANKET, SOME EXTRA JACKETS,
YOU UNDERSTAND? ONCE THE AUTHORITIES
FOUND THIS OUT, OBVIOUSLY THEY’RE COMPLETELY,
COMPLETELY, YOU KNOW, ANGRY. SO THEY CHANGED THE GUARD. AND EVEN THOUGH THEY’D
CHANGE THE GUARD, THE SAME THING WOULD
HAPPEN AGAIN. SO EVEN IN PRISON, THERE WAS
NO ONE GUARD THAT COULD LOOK AFTER NELSON MANDELA
WITHOUT HIM ENDING UP BECOMING A FRIEND
OF NELSON MANDELA. THAT IS THE SPIRIT AND
THE POWER OF MANDIBA. I BELIEVE HE HAD A GIFT FROM
GOD THAT HE COULD CONNECT WITH HIS COMPASSION TO ANYBODY, WHETHER THAT PERSON
SPOKE ENGLISH OR NOT. BUT HE WOULD BE ABLE
TO CONNECT WITH YOU.>>HAYDEN: DO YOU
THINK HE REALIZED? HE KNEW HE HAD THIS GIFT? OR HE HAD THIS RESPONSIBILITY?>>MANDELA: I THINK HE KNEW
HE HAD THIS RESPONSIBILITY. I DON’T KNOW ABOUT THE GIFT. BUT I THINK HE DEFINITELY KNEW
THAT HE HAD THIS RESPONSIBILITY. AND I CAN SAY THAT BECAUSE HE
TAUGHT ME — HE TOLD ME, DABA, YOU’RE A MANDELA,
THEREFORE PEOPLE WILL LOOK AT YOU AS A LEADER. AND AS A LEADER, YOU MUST
GET THE BEST MARKS IN CLASS. I WAS LIKE, WHOA,
WHOA, WHOA, WHOA. YOU KNOW? I WANTED
TO BE A NORMAL KID. AND PLAY AND HAVE FUN
AND DO A NORMAL KID. I DON’T HAVE THE PLEASURE
OF HAVING TO STUDY ALL — EVERY DAY SO THAT I
CAN HAVE THE BEST MARKS IN CLASS SO I CAN BE A LEADER? YOU KNOW? FOR ME, I DON’T REALLY
UNDERSTAND IT AT THE TIME. ONLY MUCH LATER THAT I
COME TO GRIPS WITH IT.>>HAYDEN: AND SO YOU’VE BEEN
ABLE TO, WITH YOUR FOUNDATION AND TO REALLY SEE
HOW YOU CAN KEEP IT.>>MANDELA: YES, YES. OBVIOUSLY, INSPIRED
ME INDIRECTLY TO START THIS FOUNDATION. BUT YOU KNOW ONE OF THE
MAIN REASONS I STARTED THIS FOUNDATION IS I WAS LUCKY TO
BE ABLE TO TRAVEL, YOU KNOW, WITH MY GRANDFATHER
AND WITHOUT HIM. AND I REMEMBER MY
FIRST TRIP HERE IN — IN AMERICA, WE WENT TO
DISNEY WORLD, OF COURSE. I WAS 18 YEARS OLD
WITH MY YOUNGER AND OLDER BROTHERS AND COUSINS. AND WE WERE TRYING TO GET
ON THE ROLLER COASTER. YOU GET IN THE LINE, YOU GET IN
FRONT OF THE QUEUE, EVENTUALLY. AND THE GENTLEMAN
HI, HOW ARE YOU? WHERE ARE YOU FROM? I’M FROM SOUTH AFRICA. HE SAYS TO ME, WELL, HOW
BIG DO THE LIONS GET. I LOOKED AT MY COUSIN
AND SAID, SORRY, SIR, I DON’T WORK AT THE ZOO. I HAVE NO IDEA HOW
BIG LIONS GET. THEN WE TRAVEL TO LONDON
AND SOMEBODY SAYS, HEY, WOW, YOU KNOW, HI, HOW ARE YOU? AFRICA, I HEARD IT’S DANGEROUS. I NEED SECURITY TO
COME TO SOUTH AFRICA. IT’S QUITE SAFE. MY GRANDFATHER WAS PRESIDENT,
I DON’T EVEN HAVE SECURITY. I THINK YOU’LL BE JUST FINE. YOU’LL BE JUST FINE. THEN WE TRAVEL TO NEW YORK. AND ANOTHER PERSON CAME
IN THE SAME FASHION. AND THEN I REALIZED, OH, MAN,
THERE’S SOMETHING WRONG HERE. PEOPLE OUTSIDE OF OUR CONTINENT
HAVE A VERY SKEWED PERCEPTION OF WHAT’S HAPPENING
ON OUR CONTINENT. AND THIS IS MAINLY
PERPETUATED BY MAIN STREAM MEDIA THAT AFRICA IS A PLACE OF WAR,
POVERTY, DISEASE, AND DICTATORS. NOW, WE’RE NOT HERE TO DENY
THESE THINGS EXIST, HOWEVER, THERE ARE A LOT OF QUALITY
THINGS THAT ARE GOOD IN AFRICA THAN WHAT YOU SEE ON YOUR TV. AND SO WE DECIDED
TO START SOMETHING. WE DIDN’T KNOW WHAT IT WAS. WE DECIDED TO START SOMETHING. SO WHEN I GOT BACK HOME, ME AND MY COUSIN CALLED
OUR COLLEAGUES, RIGHT? AND I SAID, GUYS,
THERE’S SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE IMAGE OF AFRICA. WE NEED TO CHANGE IT. AND WHAT I REALIZED THAT DAY IS
I WAS NOT SPECIAL BECAUSE MOST OF THE PEOPLE I CALLED TO THE
MEETING FELT THE VERY SAME WAY. SO IT WASN’T I AM IN THE HEART
OF AFRICAN YOUTH IN GENERAL, THEY FEEL THE SAME WAY I DO. THEY’VE SEEN IT AND
EXPERIENCED IT. SO THAT DAY WE DECIDED
TO BE A FOUNDATION, A NON-PROFITABLE
ORGANIZATION THAT FOCUSES ON YOUTH EMPOWERMENT BECAUSE
WE UNDERSTAND THAT THE TASK AT HAND IS NOT GOING TO
BE ACHIEVED OVERNIGHT. IT’S GOING TO TAKE TWO OR THREE
GENERATIONS FOR US TO BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE THE BREAKING DOWN OF
THE MISCONCEPTION OF A AFRICA SO THEY CAN SEE IT AS A PLACE
WHERE THEY CAN GO ON HOLIDAY, THEY CAN SEE IT AS A PLACE
WHERE THEY CAN DO BUSINESS. THIS IS A PLACE — YOU LOOK AT
THE TOP TEN GROWING ECONOMIES IN THE WORLD RIGHT NOW,
SEVEN OF THOSE ARE COMING FROM THE CONTINENT OF AFRICA. RIGHT? MANY PEOPLE
DON’T KNOW THAT. YOU WANT REAL GROWTH
AND INVESTMENT AND RETURN ON YOUR CAPITAL. COME TO AFRICA. YOU WANT TO HAVE FUN AND
EXPERIENCE THE MOST TROPICAL AND AMAZING ISLANDS,
COME TO AFRICA. YOU WANT THE FRESHEST,
CLEANEST GARMENT DRAPING DOWN YOUR BODY, COME TO AFRICA. [ APPLAUSE ] I MEAN, WHEN YOU LOOK AT
ALL OF THE FASHION HOUSES, WHETHER IT BE LOUIS VUITTON,
HUGO BOSS, HI END, LOW END, THEY’RE ALL SEEKING
INSPIRATION FROM AFRICA. NOT GOING TO TALK ABOUT
THE MUSIC AND DANCING.>>HAYDEN: I WAS GOING TO ASK. AND ART.>>MANDELA: SO WE BASICALLY
FOCUS ON YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL
LEVEL, FOCUS ON EDUCATION, FOR DEVELOPMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY. SO WE ARE CURRENTLY RUNNING
A THREE-MONTH CODING PROGRAM FOR 40 KIDS IN HIGH SCHOOL
AND 20 UNEMPLOYED YOUTH. AND IN SOUTH AFRICA, ONE OF OUR
CHALLENGES IS WE HAVE 60% TO 70% OF OUR YOUTH ARE
UNEMPLOYED AND OVER 60% OF THEM ARE UNEMPLOYABLE
BECAUSE THEY DO NOT HAVE SKILLS. TO ACTUALLY GET A JOB.>>HAYDEN: WHAT ABOUT
THE SCHOOL SYSTEMS? I KNOW THERE WAS — THERE
WERE DIVISIONS AND THINGS. SO, NOW, HOW ARE YOUR
EDUCATION SYSTEMS?>>MANDELA: YOU KNOW, THE
STORY OF SOUTH AFRICA IS THAT WE HAVE THE
PRIVATE AND THE PUBLIC. THE PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN SOUTH
AFRICA ARE SOME OF THE BEST IN THE WORLD, HAVE THE BEST
FACILITIES IN THE WORLD. AND CAN REALLY COMPARE
TO ANY IN THE WORLD. BUT THE PUBLIC NOT AS GOOD — WE
HAD A FEW GOOD PUBLIC SCHOOLS. BUT THE MAJORITY OF THEM
ARE LACKING IN MANY WAYS. YOU KNOW? WHETHER
IT’S THE ATTITUDE OF THE TEACHERS, YOU KNOW? THE FACILITIES. BUT SHEER DOWN THE MANAGEMENT OF
RESOURCES OR LACK OF RESOURCES WHEN IT COMES TO
THE PUBLIC SECTOR. I MEAN, I KNOW A SCHOOL WHICH
IS NOT TOO FAR FROM OUR VILLAGE, THEY ARE STUDYING IN A — YOU KNOW, THE SHIPMENT
CONTAINERS, THAT IS A SCHOOL. THE SHIPMENT CONTAINER
— A WHOLE SCHOOL. LOOKING AFTER ABOUT
200 CHILDREN. AND IT’S A RAGGEDY,
RAGGEDY, TERRIBLE SHAPE. RECENTLY BEFORE I CAME HERE,
THE TEACHER WHO TOLD ME THAT IT HAS HOLES ON THE FLOOR
AND THERE’S BEEN INCIDENTS WHERE SNAKES CREEP UP THROUGH — I MEAN, CAN YOU IMAGINE
A 5-YEAR-OLD, 6-YEAR-OLD? THAT’S THE MOST TRAUMATIC THING. THAT’S THE MOST TRAUMATIC THING. SO HOW CAN YOU — THESE
KIDS ARE NOT LOOKING FORWARD TO GOING TO SCHOOL. YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN? THEY’RE NOT LOOKING
FORWARD TO GOING TO SCHOOL. THEY DON’T KNOW THE FACT THAT
THEY CAN’T EVEN AFFORD FOOD, HOW CAN YOU LEARN
ON AN EMPTY STOMACH. SO THE WEIRD THING
IS THAT SOUTH AFRICA, OUR COUNTRY IN PARTICULAR, HAS
BOTH ASPECTS OF A DEVELOPING AND A DEVELOPED COUNTRY,
WE HAVE THE BEST AND THE WORST IN OUR COUNTRY. THE BEST AND THE WORST. YOU’LL SAY, OH, MY GOD,
I’M BACK IN THE STONE AGES. LOOKS LIKE HELL. AND THEN THERE ARE PARTS
WHERE YOU SAY, OH, MY GOD, LOOK AT THIS, I MUST
BE IN MONACO! THIS IS AMAZING. THAT IS SOUTH AFRICA TODAY. SO IT’S A QUESTION OF HOW DO
WE CLOSE THE GAP, YOU KNOW? THAT IS OUR BIGGEST
CHALLENGE RIGHT NOW.>>HAYDEN: THIS JULY, YOUR GRANDFATHER WOULD
HAVE TURNED 100 YEARS OLD. AND ARE THERE PLANS
FOR A CENTENNIAL? BECAUSE I REALLY WANTED TO — BEFORE WE OPEN IT UP FOR
QUESTIONS, I WANTED TO –>>MANDELA: AWESOME PLANS. THE NELSON MANDELA FOUNDATION, THEY HAVE THE ANNUAL
LECTURE THAT’S BEEN GIVEN BY BARACK OBAMA AND
MICHELLE OBAMA OF THIS YEAR, THAT WILL BE THE 17th OF JULY. UNFORTUNATELY, WE WERE
GOING TO HAVE A GALA DINNER. IT HAD TO BE POSTPONED SO
WE’VE POSTPONED IT TO THE 1st OF DECEMBER, IT’S
WORLD AIDS DAY. HIV-AIDS IS SOMETHING THAT’S
PLAYED A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN MY LIFE. I LOST BOTH OF MY
PARENTS TO HIV/AIDS. AND SINCE THEN, HAVE BECOME ONE OF THE LONGEST SERVING
AMBASSADORS OF U.N.-AIDS. HAVING TRAVELLED TO, YOU KNOW,
BRAZIL, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND, TALKING ABOUT THIS EPIDEMIC. RECENTLY, I WAS IN
RUSSIA SPEAK EGG AT THE EAST EUROPEAN
AIDS CONFERENCE. SO, YEAH. I MEAN, WE ARE BY
MANY WAYS THE AVERAGE FAMILIES. WE’RE AFFECTED BY SOMETHING THAT
AFFECTS ALL OF SOUTH AFRICANS, WE HAVE MANDELA, THIS
PATRIARCH, OUR LEADER, WE’RE VERY MUCH THE SAME AS
THOSE AVERAGE FAMILIES TODAY.>>HAYDEN: YOUR GRANDFATHER
LEFT A LEGACY FELT GLOBALLY. I KNOW YOU CARRIED ON. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LIFE
LESSONS YOU THINK HE TAUGHT YOU AND THAT WE CAN ALL
LOOK FORWARD TO?>>MANDELA: THE ONE LESSON
WE TAUGHT ME WAS, NDABA, YOU MUST ALWAYS BE HUMBLE,
HUMILITY IS VERY IMPORTANT, ESPECIALLY FOR A LEADER. YOU HAVE TO BE — YOU
HAVE TO BE ACCESSIBLE. AND YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND THE
PEOPLE THAT YOU’RE SERVING. BECAUSE AS A LEADER,
YOU ARE A SERVANT. YOU’RE NOT THERE TO
BOAST, TO SHOW HOW MUCH, WHAT A GREAT CAR YOU HAVE
OR HOW MANY THINGS YOU HAVE. THAT’S NOT A LEADER. LEADERS ARE NOT THERE TO SHOW
I’M NUMBER ONE, LOOK AT ME. I’M THERE TO MAKE SURE THAT THE
PEOPLE WHO DON’T HAVE A VOICE, WHO CAN’T STAND UP
FOR THEMSELVES, THAT’S THE PEOPLE
I’M THERE TO SERVE. SO YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND
WHO YOUR CONSTITUENCY IS. YOU NEED TO HAVE A CONSTITUENCY. YOU MUST BE HUMBLE AND
HE SAID TO ME, NDABA, YOU MUST NEVER DRIVE A JAGUAR, BECAUSE THEN PEOPLE KNOW
HOW MUCH MONEY YOU HAVE. AND THEN I THOUGHT TO
MYSELF, BUT, GRAD DAD, YOU USED TO DRIVE
A MERCEDES BENZ. OKAY, OKAY. BUT I’LL TAKE IT ON THE CHIN. I’LL TAKE IT ON THE CHIN. BUT, OF COURSE, I THINK HE WAS
VERY SERIOUS AT THE SAME TIME. YOU KNOW? DISCIPLINE
IS VERY IMPORTANT. AND HE WAS ONE OF THE MOST
DISCIPLINED PERSONS I’VE EVER MET. YOU KNOW, OBVIOUSLY AS
HE WAS GETTING OLDER, HE WOULD GET SICK
FROM TIME TO TIME. AND THE DOCTOR WOULD SAY,
YOU MUST EAT MORE TOMATOES AND YOU’D TELMA MA
KOLI, EVERY MORNING, I WANT YOU TO SLICE
UP TWO TOMATOES. THIN A COUPLE OF MONTHS
LATER, HE WOULD SAY, NO, YOU MUST EAT LESS TOMATOES. AND THEN HE WOULD SAY, MAKE
SURE THERE ARE NO MORE TOMATOES. NOW I WANT APPLES. HE WOULD DO IT RELIGIOUSLY
EVERY DAY. YOU KNOW? DISCIPLINE. INTEGRITY, VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU TELL YOUR FRIEND, HEY,
LET’S MEET AT THE LIBRARY AT 2:00, BE THERE
AT 2:00.OFF KNOW? HE’D SAY, LISTEN,
I’M GOING TO SEND YOU THAT E-MAIL LATER TONIGHT,
SEND THAT E-MAIL LATER TONIGHT. THAT’S INTEGRITY ON B A
VERY BASIC LEVEL, YOU KNOW? BUT IT’S VERY IMPORTANT. IT GOES A LONG WAY. BUT MANDIBA? WHAT CAN I SAY ABOUT MANDIBA? HE TAUGHT ME THAW LOVE
IS STRONGER THAN HATE. BECAUSE LOVE COMES
MUCH MORE NATURAL TO THE HUMAN CONDITION
THAN HATE. IF A PERSON CAN BE
TAUGHT TO HATE, THEY CAN BE TAUGHT TO LOVE. THAT’S OUR THEME FOR
CELEBRATING MANDELA FOR 100 YEARS, LOVE AND UNITY. BECAUSE THROUGH LOVE AND
UNITY, THERE’S NOTHING THAT WE CANNOT ACHIEVE. [ APPLAUSE ]>>YOU KNOW, YOU HAVE A
CHANCE TO MAKE HIM PROUD. AND I THINK HE CONTINUES
TO BE PROUD.>>THANK YOU, THANK
YOU VERY MUCH.>>HAYDEN: SO WE HAVE TIME FOR
A FEW QUESTIONS, I UNDERSTAND. AND THERE IS A MICROPHONE. I HOPE. AND HERE
ARE SOME PEOPLE. AND IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO AND OF
COURSE THE BOOK IS AVAILABLE, AND THERE’S A YOUNG
MAN RIGHT HERE –>>MANDELA: RIGHT HERE.>>HAYDEN: RIGHT IN FRONT. LOOKS LIKE HE’S ABOUT THE AGE WHEN YOU WERE TRYING
TO SNEAK OUT. SURE, INTRODUCE YOURSELF.>>MY NAME IS JOSHUA. I’M A RISING SOPHOMORE
AT MOORE HOUSE COLLEGE. [ APPLAUSE ]>>I’M A CINEMA, TELEVISION,
AND EMERGING MEDIA STUDIES MAJOR AND A JOURNALISM MINOR. I’M FROM COLUMBIA, MARYLAND
SO I GUESS I’M COMMUTING. I’M A JUNIOR FELLOW AT
THE LIBRARY OF COMMERCE. I WORK IN THE PHOTOS
AND PRINTS COLLECTION. YEAH, I’M AN INTERN HERE. SORRY. MY QUESTION TO YOU IS
YOU SAY THAT YOU SEE THE BEST AND THE WORST, SOCIOECONOMICALLY
AND ON THE EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE PUBLIC IN AFRICA,
HOW COULD THAT TRANSLATE TO HELPING THE BLACK
COMMUNITY IN AMERICA?>>MANDELA: WELL, WHAT THAT
SAYS IS LIKE WHAT I SAID NOW, THROUGH LOVE AND
UNITY, YOU KNOW, MANDIBA SAID YOU CAN JUDGE
THE SOCIETY THERE’S NO KEENER REVELATION TO A SOCIETY’S SOUL THAN IN THE WAY THEY TREAT
THEIR CHILDREN, RIGHT? SO WE HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY
TO DO AS MUCH AS WE CAN TO MAKE SURE THAT YOUNG PEOPLE
HAVE MENTORSHIP, GOOD MENTORS. THEY MAY NOT HAVE THE BEST
SCHOOLS, BUT WE CAN TEACH ONE OF US SITTING IN THIS
ROOM MENTOR A YOUNG CHILD FOR ONE HOUR OR TWO
HOURS A WEEK. THAT WILL GO A LONG WAY. IF YOU CAN SIT WITH
THEM FOR ONE HOUR A WEEK ON A SATURDAY, RIGHT? AND GO THROUGH HIS
HOMEWORK AND ASK QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT HE EXPERIENCED
IN THAT WEEK AND WHAT HIS CHALLENGES
ARE, THINK ABOUT THE IMPACT THAT IT WILL HAVE IF YOU DO
THAT FOR FIVE YEARS, RIGHT? WE CANNOT — THESE DAYS, THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE
ARE NO LONGER YOUR LAWYERS OR YOUR POLICEMEN, RIGHT? THE MOST INFLUENTIAL
PEOPLE TODAY ARE POP STARS. RIGHT? YOUR MUSICIANS,
YOUR ACTORS, WHO ARE NOT NECESSARILY
COGNIZANT OF THE EFFECT THEY HAVE ON
A YOUNG KID’S MIND, RIGHT? BECAUSE THEY ENGAGE FROM TIME
TO TIME IN NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR. AND SOME OF THEM WILL SAY, WELL,
I DIDN’T WANT TO BE A MENTOR. I DIDN’T CHOOSE TO BE A MENTOR. DOESN’T MATTER IF
YOU CHOSE IT OR NOT. YOU ARE A PERSON IN
AN INFLUENTIAL PERSON, SO ACKNOWLEDGE AND EMBRACE
THAT POSITION THAT YOU’RE IN. RIGHT? SO IF WE CAN TAKE TIME TO
SPEND TIME WITH THE YOUNG PERSON AND TAKE SOME OF THE
LESSONS OF NELSON MANDELA, DON’T YOU THINK THIS WORLD
WOULD BE A BETTER PLACE FIVE TO TEN YEARS FROM NOW? [ APPLAUSE ]>>HELLO. I’M ALSO AN INTERN FOR THE NATIONAL CENTER
FOR HIGHER EDUCATION. I’M EMILY. I’M CURIOUS OF THE HISTORY
THAT YOU LIVED THROUGH AND YOUR GRANDFATHER
LIVED THROUGH, HAS OFFERED ANY PERSPECTIVE
ON TO THE WAY THAT OUR NATION IS HEADED AND
DO YOU HAVE ANY ADVICE FOR FOLKS WHO ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE
FUTURE OF HUMANITY BASED ON SOME OF THE POLITICS THAT WE ARE
LIVING THROUGH RIGHT NOW AND THE DIRECTION THAT WE’RE
HEADING IN AS A NATION?>>MANDELA: YES, YOU
KNOW, WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT THE IMMIGRATION ISSUE WHICH I SEE IS VERY
BIG RIGHT NOW, AND IT’S VERY SIMILAR
TO OUR COUNTRY. WE WENT THROUGH A SIMILAR
THING, BUT IN OUR COUNTRY, WE ACTUALLY HAD ATTACKS,
THE PHOBIA OF FEAR OF PEOPLE FROM OUTSIDE OF YOUR COUNTRY,
FOREIGNERS, PRETTY MUCH. FEAR OF FOREIGNERS. AND IT WAS SO BAD THAT SOUTH
AFRICANS WERE PHYSICALLY ATTACKING ETHIOPIANS,
ZIMBABWEANS, NIGERIANS, ETC. THEY’RE STEALING OUR JOBS,
MESSING UP OUR ECONOMY, ETC., ETC. IT’S A DAMN SHAME,
IT’S A DAMN SHAME. BECAUSE THESE ARE THE VERY
SAME PEOPLE THAT ASSISTED YOU IN LIBERATING YOUR COUNTRY. THESE ARE THE SAME PEOPLE
WHO BUILT THE FUNDAMENTALS AND THE BUILDING BLOCKS
OF AMERICAN SOCIETY. RIGHT? [ APPLAUSE ] SOD HOW DO WE TURN OUR BACK NOW
WE’RE EXPERIENCING PROSPERITY AND EXPERIENCING
NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND THE TICK NOLING BOOM AND
ALL OF THESE AMAZING NEW THINGS, HEY, YOU BUILT OUR COUNTRY,
NOW IT’S TIME FOR YOU TO LEAVE BECAUSE WE WANT TO ENJOY IT
BY OURSELVES, YOU UNDERSTAND? WE NEED TO REMIND EACH
OTHER WHERE WE COME FROM. HOW GREAT IS THIS COUNTRY BUILT. IT’S NOT BUILT BY AMERICANS. IT’S BUILT BY PEOPLE
AROUND THE WORLD. SO WHY ARE WE CHASTISING
OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS WHO HELPED US GET HERE TODAY?>>HAYDEN: WE’RE TAPING
THIS BECAUSE A LOT OF THE STAFF MEMBERS HERE
ARE GOING BACK TO THEIR POST. IF YOU SEE PEOPLE LEAVE,
THAT’S WHAT’S HAPPENING.>>MANDELA: WHERE
I COME FROM, WE — I DON’T HAVE TO INTRODUCE MYSELF
TO YOU, BUT FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE AUDIENCE, I, TOO, MY NAME
IS — AND MY SURNAME IS MANDELA, I’M FROM THE HOUSE
OF MANDELA IN UNU. I WANTED TO AFFIRM AND CONFIRM
THAT WHAT YOU’VE INDEED WRITTEN IN YOUR BOOK IS TRUE AND I
WANT TO THANK YOU, NDABA, FOR THE GRAND ARTICULATION OF
OUR CULTURE AND HOW WE EXPLAINED TO THE WORLD THAT THE
KINGDOM IS BEING CONFIGURED, THE CONFIGURATION
OF THE KINGDOM. SO THANK YOU, AS THE YOUNGER
BROTHER I’VE ALWAYS LOOKED UP TO YOU. UNFORTUNATELY, YOU DIDN’T TELL
ME THAT IN COMING TO AMERICA — (INDISCERNIBLE) AND
I SAID TO MYSELF, I’M GOING TO SURPRISE HIM. SO AS A YOUNGER BROTHER
WHO’S INSPIRED BY THE WORK YOU’RE DOING IN
CARRYING IT ON WITH THE LEGACY OF OUR GRANDFATHER, AND I’M
LENDING TO YOU, THEREFORE, YOU MUST NOT MAKE
A SINGLE MISTAKE, BECAUSE I’M STEPPING
AT YOUR FEET. [ APPLAUSE ] THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ]>>FAMILY IS EVERYTHING.>>THAT’S RIGHT. I WOULDN’T BE HERE WITHOUT IT.>>AWESOME. THANK YOU FOR COMING. THANK YOU FOR DOING THE BOOK. MY NAME IS MONTY — MY
QUESTION RELATES TO ZIMBABWE. AND COMPARABLY SPEAKING,
NELSON MANDELA WAS ONE OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS,
LIBERATORS, THAT WAS ABLE TO EVENTUALLY HELP WITH
THE DEMOCRATIZATION EFFORTS AS WE ARE APPROACHING
ELECTIONS IN ZIMBABWE, JULY — THEY ANNOUNCED FOR JULY
30, TO BE DOING ELECTIONS, MY QUESTION IS REGARD ING
THE 25% OF ZIMBABWEANS WHO CURRENTLY DWELL IN THE BEING
TOLD YOU’RE GOING TO BE EXCLUDED FROM THE ELECTIONS UNLESS
YOU COME BACK HOME TO VOTE. SO MY QUESTION IS, CAN
YOU SHED SOMESOME — SOME SUGGESTIONS OR SOME SUPPORT
AND IF YOU COULD ALSO TOUCH ON PAN AFRICANISM ON THIS ONE? THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU. THANK YOU. YOU KNOW, I CAN’T REALLY
JUDGE ON THAT ISSUE. BECAUSE IT ALSO DEPENDS ON
THE RESOURCES OF THE COUNTRY. YOU KNOW? IT’S — IF
THE COUNTRY IS POOR AND THEY DON’T HAVE RESOURCES
TO ALLOW THE CITIZENS TO VOTE BY REMOTE CONTROL,
HOW CAN I JUDGE? YOU KNOW? LIKELY, SOUTH AFRICA
HAS NO RESOURCES FOR PEOPLE TO VOTE AT THEIR
EMBASSIES AROUND THE WORLD, BUT JUST BECAUSE SOUTH AFRICA
CAN DO IT DOESN’T MEAN EVERY NATION SHOULD DO IT OR
EVERY NATION CAN DO IT. SO IT’S VERY DIFFICULT FOR ME
TO JUDGE IN THAT SITUATION. YES, OBVIOUSLY, IT’S
UNFORTUNATE, YOU KNOW. YOU WANT AS MUCH CITIZENS TO OBVIOUSLY BE INCLUDED
IN THE VOTING. BUT IT’S DIFFICULT. YOU KNOW? IT’S VERY DIFFICULT. YOU CAN ONLY B HAVE THE
RESOURCES TO CARRY THE EMBASSIES AND GET THOSE VOTES
BACK TO THE COUNTRIES. YOU KNOW? WHO CAN
JUDGE THEM FOR THAT? WE CAN’T REALLY JUDGE THEM. SO, IF THE ONLY WAY TO TELL
PEOPLE TO COME HOME AND VOTE, HOW CAN WE — WE CAN’T
JUDGE THEM FOR THAT. THERE’S NOTHING WE CAN DO. BUT, AS FAR AS PAN
AFRICANISM IS CONCERNED, I BELIEVE THAT LIBERATION OF SOUTH AFRICA COULD
NOT HAVE BEEN ACHIEVED WITHOUT THE SUPPORT OF
OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS ACROSS THE CONTINENTS
AS YOU KNOW. A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE ZIMBABWE
AND SWATSLAND ALL THE WAY UP TO NIGERIA, ETHIOPIA, YOU
NAME IT, MALI, ETC. SO, FOR ME, WE NEED SOMEHOW, SOME WAY,
THROUGH THE INDEPENDENT JOURNEY AND THE POST COLONIAL AREA, WE LOST THAT PAN
AFRICANISM THAT WE ONCE HAD. WE LOST THE UNITY AND
SOLIDARITY THAT WE ONCE HAD. IT NEEDS TO BE REUNITED. AND IN OUR CONTINENT, WE’RE
TRADING MORE WITH THE WEST AND THE EAST THAN WE ARE
TRADING WITH EACH OTHER, WHICH HAS NEVER HAPPENED BEFORE. WE NEED TO REIGNITE THAT
BECAUSE IF WE DO NOT UNITE, AND REIGNITE THE SPIRIT OF
SOLIDARITY AMONGST AFRICANS ON THE CONTINENT
FIRST AND FOREMOST, WE SHALL NEVER REALIZE
OUR ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE. WE SHALL NEVER REALIZE OUR
DREAM TO CREATE A PROSPEROUS AND INDEPENDENT CONTINENT
OF AFRICA. THAT IS REALLY THE KEY
TO US ACHIEVING OUR GOALS AND MAKING SURE OUR
DREAMS COME TO FRUITION. SO, IN THE SPIRIT OF MEN
WHO WERE TRUE VISIONARIES, AND IN ONE OF THEIR WORDS, WE AS AFRICANS DO NOT LOOK
WEST NOR DO WE LOOK EAST, WE LOOK FORWARD. HUH? THANK YOU, BROTHER. [ APPLAUSE ]>>I’VE BEEN TOLD THAT WE HAVE
TIME FOR ONE MORE QUESTION. SO BE WE HAVE A PERSON HERE.>>GOOD AFTERNOON, MY
NAME IS WAYNE CONNOR. I’M AN EMPLOYEE HERE AT
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. I WORK IN THE OFFICE
OF GENERAL COUNSEL. MY QUESTION IS FOR — FOR SOMEONE WHO HAS OBVIOUSLY
BEEN INSPIRED BY A GREAT LEADER AND WHO IS CURRENTLY A GREAT
ADVOCATE FOR MANY CAUSES, HOW COULD — DO YOU HAVE
ANY ADVICE FOR YOUNG PEOPLE LIKE MYSELF OR OTHERS
WHO MIGHT BE IN THE ROOM ON HOW WE CAN BETTER,
YOU KNOW, BECOME A VOICE AND BECOME AN INFLUENCER
OF CHANGE WITHIN OUR OWN COMMUNITIES
AND WHAT ARE SOME OF THE TOOLS THAT WE CAN SEEK OUT IN ORDER TO
BE ABLE TO BE BETTER AT THAT IN?>>MANDELA: YOU KNOW, YOU
HAVE TO CHOOSE A CAUSE THAT YOU CARE ABOUT, THAT
YOU’RE PASSIONATE ABOUT. IT’S LIKE BUSINESS. WHERE YOU BECOME
AN ENTREPRENEUR. YOU CANNOT BE A SUCCESSFUL
ENTREPRENEUR IF YOU’RE NOT PASSIONATE
ABOUT THAT BUSINESS. BECAUSE ALONG THE WAY, YOU
WILL COME ACROSS HURDLES, PEOPLE WHO DON’T BELIEVE YOU, AND PEOPLE WHO THINK
YOU CAN’T DO IT. RIGHT? SO YOU NEED
TO HAVE A CAUSE THAT YOU’RE VERY
PASSIONATE ABOUT. THAT WILL MAKE SURE
THAT YOU DON’T GIVE UP. BECAUSE PEOPLE GIVE UP
SOMETIMES TOO QUICKLY. YOU KNOW? FOR VARIOUS
AMOUNTS OF REASONS. NOW, YOU NEED TO MAKE SURE THAT
YOU SURROUND YOURSELF BY PEOPLE WHO CARE FOR YOU
AND BELIEVE IN YOU. YOU NEED TO HAVE A MENTOR. EVERYBODY NEEDS A MENTOR,
NO MATTER HOW OLD YOU ARE, NO MATTER HOW SUCCESSFUL YOU
ARE, EVERYBODY NEEDS A MENTOR. AND, YOU NEED TO THEN
UNDERSTAND THE PEOPLE OF A CAUSE THAT YOU’RE CHAMPIONING,
WHAT THEIR CHALLENGES ARE. YOU CANNOT CHAMPION A CAUSE
IF YOU HAVE NOT TALKED TO THE PEOPLE THAT
IT AFFECTS THE MOST. OTHERWISE, YOU ARE JUST
SHOOTING IN THE HEAD, RIGHT? YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT CONSTITUENCY
THAT YOU’RE SERVING. AND MAKE SURE THE CONCERN
YOURSELF WITH THE RIGHT PEOPLE. AND OFTEN THAT SUPPORTS AT HOME. THAT SUPPORT STARTS WITHIN
YOUR OWN IMMEDIATE NETWORK. AND IF YOU CAN’T GET SUPPORT
FROM YOUR FAMILY MEMBERS AND YOUR FRIENDS AND YOUR
OWN IMMEDIATE NETWORK, THEN, MY FRIEND, I THINK YOU
NEED TO CHANGE YOUR COURSE. BECAUSE CLEARLY, THEY
DON’T BELIEVE YOU. AND IF THEY DON’T BELIEVE
YOU, THEN I DON’T KNOW WHERE YOU’RE GOING
TO GET YOUR SUPPORT. SO FIRST — THE FIRST
THING IS, DO I REALLY CARE ABOUT THIS THING AM
I TRYING TO PUSH? AM I IN TOUCH WITH THE PEOPLE
THAT I’M TRYING TO HELP, TRYING TO GIVE A VOICE,
TRYING TO GET A LAW PASSED, OR AN ACTION — YOU KNOW, DONE,
OR WHATEVER THE CASE MAY BE. YOU KNOW? YOU NEED TO BE
IMPRESSED WITH THOSE PEOPLE. AND HAVE A MENTOR
AND A SUPPORT BASE. BASICALLY. AND THAT IS REALLY THE
FIRST STEPS OF MAKING SURE THAT YOU ARE ABLE TO SERVE
THE OBJECTIVE THAT YOU SET OUT FOR YOURSELF DON’T DO
IT BECAUSE THE GIRL YOU LIKE SAID YOU SHOULD DO IT. OR YOU DO IT BECAUSE YOUR
PARENTS FORCE YOU TO DO IT. DO IT BECAUSE YOU YOURSELF CARE AND ARE PASSIONATE
ABOUT THAT CAUSE. [ APPLAUSE ]>>HAYDEN: WE ALL THANK YOU FOR SHARING THE LIFE LESSONS YOU
LEARNED FROM YOUR GRANDFATHER AND SHARING THEM WITH ALL OF US. AND I AM NEVER RECOMMEND A
BOOK BECAUSE OF WHAT I DO. BUT IF YOU HAPPEN
TO HAVE A CHANCE TO READ WHAT YOU HAVE
LEARNED AND READ THIS BOOK, I THINK YOU WOULD BE IN TOUCH, NOT ONLY WITH YOUR
GRANDFATHER, BUT WITH YOU.>>MANDELA: THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>HAYDEN: THANK YOU. FEMALE VOICE: THIS HAS
BEEN A PRESENTATION OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. VISIT US AT LOC.GOV.

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