# Animal cell culture 5 – secondary cell culture

hello friends welcome to another session of samos biology is you know animal cell culture series and in the previous video we have seen the properties of primary cells and primary cell culture now in this video we'll be talking about the secondary cell culture and what are the other names of secondary cell culture and the process of secondary cell culture advantages of it disadvantages of so let us talk about it here we go the primary cell like cell culture there so you take the organism we take the cell from from the organ we place it into the medium since start to grow they are called primary cells now once they start to grow and cover the whole medium as the primary cells those cells are morphologically physiologically and biochemical is same as the parent cell that's a very good thing they also have same karyotype and they have less differential differentiated ability so the cell differentiation is not actually occurred during this process so it makes them ideal to study for our purposes but they have a problem that they have finite number of divisions after that they will die they don't have any huge growth and for their development and growth it's not that easy in vitro situation now once we reach this situation we know that this cells start to die after certain division certain number of divisions so what we need to do we sometimes need to you know make a copy of this cells so we take some cells from this primary cell culture and place it into another media so that those cells continue to grow right so that first change I mean transfer of the cell so let me see here this is another media right and we just transfer the cell from this primary cells into here the other media and then the cells start to grow now this second mode and the change I mean taking the cell from one culture to another is called as the sub culturing process so it Skol as sub culture and this is the first subculture that we have done here right because it is done the for the first time that this first transfer this won't count as a subculture because this is direct culture but this is subculture that is from a culture to another culture subculture process is done from the sub after the subculture we have a set of cells again now those set of cells will be termed as in many different ways many different names so the names actually are they can be termed as you know secondary secondary cells and this whole culture process will be termed as secondary culture because primary culture is a secondary culture it is also termed as cell line cell lines it can be termed as you know it can be finite cell culture it can be termed as continuous cell culture it can be termed as you know restricted cell culture or something like that so let's take only up to this mark that is it can be termed as secondary cells cell lines finite cell culture continuous cell culture and so on and many more different names but all of these names are secondary subculture but not the primary cells because primary culture is the only name that is primary culture rest of the thing is the secondary one it can be continuous it can be finite or it can be you know it can and this is also called as cell lines but it can be of finite or continuous so any cell line that we consider or any secondary cells that we take they can be of two different types finite continuous and many more types but majorly two finite and continuous they can be of other talaq restricted and many more now in this case this continuous and finite so what are these different things so first of all if you look at the finite cell culture that is a type of secondary cell culture or cell lines or finite cell line means again those cells that we take care the cells will divide and grow up to a particular number of times number of generations and then ultimately will die just like the primary cells that we talk here so the they will grow and die so grow and eventually die on the other hand the second one is continuous continuous culture continuous culture means theoretically actually it means the cells will grow in finite number of times provided the fact if we continuously supply its medium that means the nutrients and other important resources for its growth that is oxygen supplement and all the nutrient sources then they will continuously grow and divide in finite number of times right that is termed as a continuous some other types like immortal cell culture is also there theoretically they are immortal that means they will continuous to grow and divide grow and divide throughout the generation throughout the time if we continuously supply their nutrient source they are called immortal type so these are the different types different names of the secondary cell culture depending upon the different properties and you know other things now here when the finite cell or the continuous whatever both the times we know in finite type they will grow and ultimately die just like the primary but they are not primary we know because we have already done a subculture here now the finite cell culture what happens actually they start from a particular journey start from a particular number of cells they'll start to increase rise and ultimately they will fall and they will ultimately die right but still in continuous culture why they are growing in finite number of times because in this case of continuous culture what happens to this finite cultures because actually contain most cultures have produced from finite cells a finite cell lines because the finite cell lines have some type of chemical modifications inside any kind of chemicals or physical modifications of the cell we turn those finite cell lines into in finite ones right how that is called the differentiation that is called the you know transformation of those finite cells so let me write it here it is called as trans formation and the transformation is here in this case in vitro remember because whatever thing we are doing here is in vitro so it is in vitro transformation of those finite cells into the continuous or immortal cells cell types right we know that in body also in any kind of chemical agents or carcinogenic agents can come it can change an alter into some mutations inside the cell and ultimately turn the cell into the tumor cells malignant cells that we grow and divide grow and divide and it will create huge mass of cells cause tumor and all these things we know that and those tumor cells you know they are not very much growth dependent type or growth obedient they will grow according to their wish not any other medium component they will produce their own growth factor they will nourish them or they will nourish their own and then finally grow and divide and differentiate immortally continuously throughout at the time right that thing happens in vitro and in this case we actually influenced them to be transformed into those tumor cells because we sometimes require a huge mass of cells of same type and this is the only way to get same type of cells in very small amount of time because if we if we add all those chemical factors we add or change those genetic makeup of the finite cells in such a way that it can turn into a tumor a cell it can turn into the cancerous cell it will continuously grow and finally give us huge mass of cell which we can work with right so in this case the secondary type or secondary type of cell in finite cell the advantages is that in finite cell is also half certain type of similarity with the primary cell with respect to morphology and physiology but they are having some differentiation pattern those cells have certain differentiation signals some of the cells can be differentiated so they are not exactly same like primary but they have very high degree of singularity with the parent cell so they are good to work with they are also easy to work with but once you talk about the continuous cell you know continuous cells are you know hard to kill they will grow and grow and easily grow they grow in very fast rate seeing all aspects of all these cells continuous cell lines are the type which we can use we can handle pretty well they have less contamination chances they grow very fast they grow predominantly they produce their own growth growth factors so we don't need to take care of them very much as we need to do for primary cells or I know finite number of cells finite cell lines so the continuous cell lines and this this all properties of continuous cell lines make them as the most you know loved cell culture or cell lines among all so scientists really want to do research with discontinuous cell lines or cancerous or tumor cell lines example of this cell line is HeLa HeLa cell that is the cell coming from Henrietta Lacks Weiser who is having a fatal cervical cancer so HeLa is a cell which is in a continuous or in finite cell line that cell is continuously growing and dividing and we are providing the media and it is continuously growing actually this cell is the epithelial cell of the cervix and that is transformed into this type of continuous cell by human papilloma virus a teen or HPV HPV 18 infection it turned and caused this for sale to be transformed from finite to infinite cell line and now we are dealing with this infinite cell line a lot we're researching with this HeLa cell line a lot nowadays because it is having the all features that are required for a cell culture to establish and also they will grow very fast and contamination chances are rare is it too handy easy to work with that so ventolin way so in a sense this is all about the secondary culture you know this is a lot of difference with the primary cells because primary cells though they are similar but hard to work with easily susceptible to infection secondary cell lines on the other hand like the continuous more importantly have or bypass all this disadvantage and we can work with them but the disadvantage is the only thing and the disadvantage is we may not know how they react exactly once they those cells are placed inside because you know these cells are transformed cells so they don't have all the properties like the normal cell must have of the parent right so in that case maybe we add some say some we are looking at the effect of environmental effect we looking at this transform cell they will behave something we have hypothesized a thing but once you're looking at in vivo the thing is different because the cell in vivo and in vitro here have higher order of difference because these cells are now transformed their chemical means are changed their biochemical pair pathways are altered so this is a problem only problem with discontinuous cells but from this primary cells as you are going on as we are sub culturing a sub culturing we are losing some of the important properties from the parent cell and we are producing some newer order of cells that we are going towards the continuous that is the only problem with continuous cell culture but still people do continuous cell culture because people study some of the very important things inside them because they are you know huge advantages are there right so so this primary cell culture process are so tough and so difficult people don't actually as the successor to work with primary cell is very less that's why people are using this and primary cell is very much costlier too right because you know in each time you need to take the organic organ transplantation organ storage craft reservation many things required which is not possible for all research facilities to provide so that's why people into continuous work with Universal infinite cell culture processes there

The correct term for a cell to become continuous would be immortalization rather than transformation? Because I understand that transormation refers to a cell acquiring induced changes that make it a tumor cell.

I am in 3rd year biotechnology and in our question paper we got a question which is

QUESTION : justify " after the first subculture the primary culture does not become a cell line immediately.

So I just wanted to ask that whether the statement is true or falsem

Accha hi

U r awesome sir . U make every topic really easy . Thanks for making such videos

Secondary cell lines are ….Infinite culture ..I think..Not " finite" u explained..Plz correct me if m wrong..

You

Really

Am

Sir

Amazing

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Hi Sir, could you kindly tell us the different names for cell culture? Along w/ secondary cells, cell lines, finite cell cult, continuous cell c,… what else sir? THanks

i confused whether im watching an educational video or a shomu"s advertisement

Is secondary cell culture also known as P1 — the first Passage?

It's actually transfection, not transformation.

transformation only accounts for prokaryotes.

awsome vids though, thanks!

Do the continuous cell line cells be different than Parent cells due to mutation/ transformation?

Suman, I was looking on internet and found they used "multilayer" also, how is that done?

Love your videos!