A Vaccine Against … Cancer?


SciShow is supported by Skillshare. [ ♪ Intro ♪ ] Last week, a group of researchers from Stanford
unveiled a vaccine that cures cancer in mice, and if we can get it to work in humans, it
will save a lot of lives. Which sounds amazing, because cancers are
terrible. But it also sounds weird, because when we
talk about vaccines, we usually mean something you get before you are sick, and that’s
meant to protect against things that you might catch from other people. Cancer vaccines stimulate the immune system
in a similar way, except they’re meant to be injected after you get sick and to cure
something that’s basically a part of yourself gone rogue. And it’s a cool idea. But despite what’s being reported in a lot
of the articles about this new research, it’s not based on a totally new concept. Instead, it’s an improved version of a technique
that’s been tried before — a version that hopefully will not be quite as deadly when
we try it in humans. Your immune system is how your body deals
with its enemies—whether foreign, like strep throat, or domestic, like a tumor. So a lot of the same parts that battle bacteria
also battle cancers; they’re just … not always very effective. For decades, doctors have been trying to improve
the immune system’s cancer-fighting ninja skills, but it’s been much harder to do
that than anyone anticipated. The new treatment, published in the journal
Science Translational Medicine, is a type of cancer vaccine designed to stimulate T
cells, which kickstart the immune system’s response when there’s a threat. Like with preventative vaccines, the goal
here is to program these cells to target a certain chemical signature, so that when it
shows up again they can efficiently launch a full-scale assault. With, like, the measles vaccine, they’re
programmed to seek out and destroy the measles virus. With this new therapy, they learn to target
cancer cells. But with the measles and other preventative
vaccines, you’re basically injecting some form of a virus or bacteria, and that’s
gonna activate T cells in a way that’s kind of like handing a bloodhound somebody’s
scent. That strategy doesn’t really work for cancer. Researchers have been studying cancerous cells
for decades, hoping to find something unique to just those cells that they could create
a vaccine against. But every tumor turned out to be different,
so there’s nothing universal that doctors can use as a target for all cancerous cells. The one cancer vaccine that’s been approved
so far only works for certain kinds of prostate cancer, and it involves sending the patient’s
cells to a lab to custom-design a vaccine for them. So it’s pretty limited and very expensive. This new research builds on a different strategy. The idea is that instead of finding something
within the tumor to target, this vaccine basically gets T cells in the tumor to send out signal
flares. When a cancerous tumor first starts to form,
the body generally does realize that something is wrong, and the immune system starts trying
to get rid of it. But cancer cells tend to mutate really quickly,
and they often find ways to shut off whatever the immune system sees as a danger signal,
which stops the attack. By that point, though, some cells have already
infiltrated the tumor, and they know how to recognize it. So they could launch an immune assault against
it … but only if they get a signal that says “hey! danger! attack!” That’s where comes in. It’s a special concoction with two main
parts: an antibody, a protein meant to target other
specific proteins; and a weird, short piece of DNA originally discovered in bacteria that
tends to induce a really strong immune response in mammals like us. This DNA is what’s called a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide,
which binds to special receptors on T cells. In response, those cells express a protein
called OX40, which is basically a signal to other immune cells that it’s found something
to attack. Meanwhile, the antibody part of the injection
binds to the OX40, adding fuel to the immunological fire. Each of those ingredients had been looked
at separately as an anti-cancer drug, but neither was effective enough on its own. And treatments that used other antibody-DNA
combos tended to make people’s immune systems overreact, to the point where they led to
a deadly complication known as autoimmune toxicity. Injecting these types of vaccines into tumors
directly usually causes fewer side effects … but it also tends to be less effective. That’s what makes this new vaccine so promising. Similar ideas have been tried before, but
this version is injected directly into tumors, and it’s incredibly effective. At least in mice. First, the researchers took 40 mice and gave
them two lymphoma tumors. For each mouse, they injected either the antibody,
the DNA, the combo vaccine, or a control solution into one of the tumors. Then they waited to see what happened to that
tumor and the tumor that they didn’t inject. The DNA alone knocked out the tumor it was
injected into, but didn’t do much to the other tumor. The antibody alone slowed tumor growth, but
that was about it. The combo, on the other hand, did everything
they could have hoped: both tumors disappeared. Then they tried similar experiments with breast,
skin, and colon cancers. And for the most part, those tumors didn’t
come back either— of the 90 mice in total that received the vaccine, 87 were completely
cured, and the others responded well to a second dosing. But since all of those tests involved artificially
giving the mice cancer, the researchers stepped things up a notch by testing the vaccine in
mice genetically predisposed to breast cancer. Not only do these types of mice have a strong
likelihood of developing breast cancer — their cancers usually metastasize, meaning that
cancerous cells break off and start new tumors elsewhere in the body. In those mice, the vaccine shrank the tumors
it was injected into, and also seemed to keep other tumors from popping up. Which all sounds super promising. But! It remains to be seen whether this technique
works in humans. Mouse models can be and have been extremely
helpful during drug development, but treatments that work in rodents often aren’t effective
in us. The real test for this vaccine will be if
it’s just as effective in humans, without causing that deadly autoimmune toxicity. Still, the researchers are hopeful—so hopeful
that they’re launching a small 15-patient clinical trial to test the method in people
with certain kinds of lymphoma. If all goes smoothly, they’d then move on
to larger trials. So, as exciting as this is, it’s more of
a small step than a giant leap in the quest to cure cancer. But if the treatment does work in humans,
we will be closer. You probably don’t realize this, but it
takes dozens of freelance writers and a full-time team of 4 editors to create the scripts we
film on SciShow and its spinoff channels SciShow Space and SciShow Psych and Scishow Kids. That’s a lot of words, and we have standards
for keeping the language informative and fun for each script. Factual writing still needs like that story
arc, and there are lots of tricks to writing compelling nonfiction. This Skillshare class about creative nonfiction
is taught by New York Times writer Susan Orlean and challenges Skillshare users to write a
1,000 word biography using her tips and advice. Give it a shot yourself with a Skillshare
membership. You can check out thousands of classes in
design, business, technology and more for $10 a month. The first 1,000 SciShow viewers to sign up
will get their first 2 months for 99¢, and you’ll be supporting SciShow. [ ♪ Outro ♪ ]

100 thoughts on “A Vaccine Against … Cancer?

  1. Support SciShow and go to http://skl.sh/scishow2. The first 1,000 to sign up will get their get their first 2 months for 99¢.

  2. Interesting. If it works will we be allowed to get it or will it be discarded so big pharma can continue making billions out of cancer treatments and drugs?

  3. I was watching it but then I seen the like and dislike area of this video representation. Well, I can't like or dis like this video.

  4. But I thought cancer cells were always changing and that’s why they couldn’t find a cure? So what happens if the cell becomes immune?

  5. Good video I'm sure you are pissed that cancer might be cured and all of the money doctors and insurance companies make will take a hit. Tough luck assholes.

  6. Wonderful! But how much will it cost in the end? Will anyone else but the rich be able to afford this kind of treatment?

  7. How about when a person gets cancer, turn them into a rat and use the vaccine. After the tumor is gone, turn them back into human.

    Thank you very much everybody…yes yes I know I'm a medical extraordinaire

  8. What if they did something with crispr (excuse spelling) that was programmed with your natural dna and fixed the mutations in tumors? Just a thought.

  9. They already have a cure but big pharma is making more money keeping people sick…. Ever heard those nut jobs/flat earthers spew out that?

  10. Moreover, the correlations were not limited to the Flu vaccine either. According to the published study found in the Journal Frontiers in Psychiatry, “Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN,” meaning the hepatitis vaccines are also implicated in causing brain disorders.

  11. Immunotherapy drug itself cures cancer. But, you know what, it's not in the best interests of pharmaceutical companies that cancer be cured. And our government doesn't think it's in their best interests, either. Despite all these new and promising research, they will always allow Chemo to remain the number #1 treatment method, knowing it poisons and weakens the body. A person with late stage cancer will likely die faster, when treated with chemo. Yet, they tell us that this treatment method helps to prolong life. And our government just don't seem to care. As far as they're concerned, we are not going to be able to collect our social security benefits, if cancer continues on with its devestating impact. And they also see the disease as a way of controlling the population.

  12. And that will for sure work unless big anticancer medicine companyies intervein in order to protect their winnings as usual

  13. I remember having the breast cancer vaccine when I was in school many years ago? Is this a false memory or some sort of trial?? Im in the UK if that helps?

  14. I couldn't realize if this was related to Gabriel Rabinovich research and discoveries. http://rabinovich-lab.com/en/proyectos/

  15. I was diagnosed B-cell lymphomas which are types of lymphoma affecting B cells. Lymphomas are blood cancers" in the lymph nodes. They develop more frequently in older adults and in compromised individuals.I remember being on my knees praying, “God, I will fight as hard as I can if you just let me get through this chemo stuff.” When I went in, Dr. Noy said, “I have something that’s going to help. I’m going to give you Procrit after you get your chemo.” Once I got the Procrit, I never felt again like I had after that first chemo treatment. I got tired and I didn’t feel 100 percent, but I was really okay. My cancer became very real to me once I lost my hair. But by then the mystery, the uncertainty, was sort of gone. Not gone, but it just wasn’t at the forefront. There were things that I started looking forward to doing, like going out and not just staying in the house. By then, the weather had started getting really nice, and I decided I needed to get out. I would go for a long walk or take the subway into the city and look in the store windows. It’s funny, people I didn’t know would chat with me on the bus, on the train. We would talk about anything. That made me feel a lot better. It come a day when i was told by a lady to try and do some research on the internet for help maybe there will be a cure to my Cancer.I google for treatment for cancer and i saw some testimony about the herbalist called Dr ODIA and the great work of his Herbal Herbs. With the hope i have in God i believe this to be the end of my problem for i have pray for a solution from God. I contact Dr ODIA with the giving email and also click on his website to see his work. I finally believed in him and told him about my problem. He prepare His Herbal medicine and which I was advice to take for three weeks, There are lot to say about Dr Odia, I Thanks God that this man was used to end my sorrow All my pains and sorrows turn to joy and history from the day i came in contact with Dr ODIA, Who really help with his herbal herbs, I WAS TOLD HE IS A HERBALIST AND HE CAN BE OF HELP, I gave him a try and it really work out for me, today here I'm cured of B-cell lymphomas. Contact him via: ([email protected] )

  16. Hey SciShow why don't you make a video on the genetic therapy against Lymphomas that was effectively applied in Italy?

  17. Yea sure, Cancers and deaths are bad but they are there to control the population. If death decreases then the only way to counter it is to decrease birth rates, which gladly, is happening.

  18. Mice have 97% of human dna but the 3% is very important. When scientist found a supposed cure in mice they tried it out on humans but caused them to go into multi organ failure.

  19. 3:20 How many times have you failed to say that word? Because I saw the happiness in your face when you said it.

  20. Look people I don’t know why you want a cure for cancer and aids. You are not part of the elite group that steals taxes from us… now they will have to tax you more

  21. I recently went to a seminar by Stanford researcher Joshua Elias, and they actually were discussing a concept very similar to this. Except, instead of developing a vaccine that stimulates infiltrated T-cells, they’re doing research on the MHC complex that presents neoantigens on the cell surface, seeing if they can predict a bias in what proteins cancer cells present, so we can make a preemptive virus for certain cancers.

  22. Even if they make a pattern that will work on various types of cancer and eventually cure the patient another problem will arise: only the rich will afford it.

  23. hmmmm. Last time I checked, a German doctor living in Germany found a cure for Cancer. Though it was in beta state, they already tested it on a human, a young little girl with cancer. Last time I checked, the vaccine was 100% successful and the girl recovered totally. (I 've watched the full video).
    If I remember well, the vaccine was created from the HIV (yes, the deadly virus) and was pretty powerful.

    So, if that vaccine is already out there and is being tested on humans, why is this a NEWS?

    This isn't a breakthrough anymore since there is already something out there that does the exact same thing and maybe does it even better… So, what's new about this? Just wondering…..

  24. Just Re-Create tumor/cancer to make it Act like Bacteria or make The special T-cells system to destroy Tumor / cancer but dont destroy bacteria(do T-cell think them virus and not our cells and automatic to destroy the bacteria .because we already got The T-Cell to destroy The bacteria. Like if you agree with this theory

    Edit:Whoa its a long Theory(Just realized lmao)

  25. Will it work for organ treanplant patient who are on immunity supressent medication and any kind of immunity boost may cause new organ to fail.?

  26. You should look up the possible benefits of something called "the blushwood berry" and its from Australia.

  27. this type of cancer tx would be a god send and would definitely warrant a Nobel prize for those scientists responsible for this development. It will save millions of lives word wide. History will remember those responsible, children will write essays and create posters about them and their discovery.

  28. I was diagnosed with stage 4 lung cancer in 2011, and that year we were excited to be celebrating my six year survivorship anniversary – a survival that was not remotely contemplated in 2016. Since i diagnosis i have learnt a lot about lung cancer, the first few years were confronting.
    I had no clue that my LUNG (left) was responsible for these combined symptoms! Fatique, chest, neck and shoulder pain. My life changed in just one breath when my Doctor diagnosed me with advanced lung cancer that was INOPERABLE, INCURABLE and TERMINAL. I will always remember the pain and tears from my husband’s face as well as my daughters and my close friends. Like many other people this was not the first time that my life was impacted by CANCER. In 2002 my sister was diagnosed with leukemia. Fortunately for us she was diagnosed at an late stage and she pass away. So when my doctor gave the news about me, We all put in mind positive energy to fight agaisnt it, Because I was not going to let that put an end to my smile. now i lives a normal healthy and active lifestyle thanks to the “Dr Adebola Herbal Herbs” which my husband doctors prescribed him. SO many good people have lost there life because of greed, The government will preach agaisnt herbal herbs because it only one true cure, But will make profil with pills because the money you treat the more money you spent, Thanks to my husband Doctor who told us this. I will want to advice anyone out here going throught sorrow with Cancer to reach out to Dr Adebola and I guarantee you that you will be cured. Contact him via: ([email protected] )

  29. I was diagnosed with stage 4 lung cancer in 2011, and that year we were excited to be celebrating my six year survivorship anniversary – a survival that was not remotely contemplated in 2016. Since i diagnosis i have learnt a lot about lung cancer, the first few years were confronting.
    I had no clue that my LUNG (left) was responsible for these combined symptoms! Fatique, chest, neck and shoulder pain. My life changed in just one breath when my Doctor diagnosed me with advanced lung cancer that was INOPERABLE, INCURABLE and TERMINAL. I will always remember the pain and tears from my husband’s face as well as my daughters and my close friends. Like many other people this was not the first time that my life was impacted by CANCER. In 2002 my sister was diagnosed with leukemia. Fortunately for us she was diagnosed at an late stage and she pass away. So when my doctor gave the news about me, We all put in mind positive energy to fight agaisnt it, Because I was not going to let that put an end to my smile. now i lives a normal healthy and active lifestyle thanks to the “Dr Adebola Herbal Herbs” which my husband doctors prescribed him. SO many good people have lost there life because of greed, The government will preach agaisnt herbal herbs because it only one true cure, But will make profil with pills because the money you treat the more money you spent, Thanks to my husband Doctor who told us this. I will want to advice anyone out here going throught sorrow with Cancer to reach out to Dr Adebola and I guarantee you that you will be cured. Contact him via: ([email protected] )

  30. I was diagnosed with stage 4 lung cancer in 2011, and that year we were excited to be celebrating my six year survivorship anniversary – a survival that was not remotely contemplated in 2016. Since i diagnosis i have learnt a lot about lung cancer, the first few years were confronting.
    I had no clue that my LUNG (left) was responsible for these combined symptoms! Fatique, chest, neck and shoulder pain. My life changed in just one breath when my Doctor diagnosed me with advanced lung cancer that was INOPERABLE, INCURABLE and TERMINAL. I will always remember the pain and tears from my husband’s face as well as my daughters and my close friends. Like many other people this was not the first time that my life was impacted by CANCER. In 2002 my sister was diagnosed with leukemia. Fortunately for us she was diagnosed at an late stage and she pass away. So when my doctor gave the news about me, We all put in mind positive energy to fight agaisnt it, Because I was not going to let that put an end to my smile. now i lives a normal healthy and active lifestyle thanks to the “Dr Adebola Herbal Herbs” which my husband doctors prescribed him. SO many good people have lost there life because of greed, The government will preach agaisnt herbal herbs because it only one true cure, But will make profil with pills because the money you treat the more money you spent, Thanks to my husband Doctor who told us this. I will want to advice anyone out here going throught sorrow with Cancer to reach out to Dr Adebola and I guarantee you that you will be cured. Contact him via: ([email protected] )

  31. There are still some godsent men on earth and i am lucky to have found one for myself. I was diagnosed of ovarian and breast cancer and i suffered for a long time haven spent money on medications without a cure. I finally came in contact with Dr Zuma who helped me with his herbal medicine that cured me of my this deadly disease. I owe my life to him and he is willing to administer this cure to those in need. Contact him via :[email protected]

  32. Africa herbs is capable of killing the cancer virus. I got cured by Doctor Izoya after he sent me some herbs.

    doctorizoyaherbals.com

  33. Stanford discretely put out an article about four months ago pertaining to non hodgekins lymphoma. I wonder if that was the update on this so called vaccine. The article spoke of a combo of 2 agents but no where did they mention it was a vaccine. Also it only worked on half of the people. Out of the half 11/22 8 went into complete remissions. I hope this wasn’t it because this was kind of disappointing.

  34. I sincerely hope that those vaccines will be used in humans pretty soon and would work effectively once and for all.

  35. yea..but what if this vaccine cause "autistic anti-vaccine religious celebrities" to be more autistic.
    they didn't think this through.

  36. So this might sound a tiny bit cruel but… can't they start trying it in patients who are pretty much doomed? I mean, if it works, great! They live! Plus more proof of how awesome it is! If it fails and causes some insane side effects, well, it's not like they were just killed when they could have lived, they were gonna die anyway, it doesn't really have any consequences and the possible positives are definitely there! It's like vital organ transplants, they don't need the heart of whatever anymore, they're already dead! And it could save another person's life!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *