Археологические и генетические исследования лангобардов и миграции варваров в Европе VI века н. э.


Beginning, approximately since 4th-century, Western Europe has experienced serious socio-cultural
and economic transformation. Period of transition from late
antiquity to the early Middle Ages was accompanied by two important
events such as collapse Western Roman Empire
and the Great Migration of Nations. This was accompanied by an invasion
various western and eastern barbarian or non-romanized
peoples, such as Goths, francs, Anglo-Saxons vandals,
Huns and Lombards. However, written reports
about these events are few words, stereotyped and significant
degrees written over decades or even centuries later,
because the barbarians themselves of that period, they did not leave
no written reports. Therefore, to study the structure
their societies according to their archaeological remains,
funerary inventory and rituals, but they also
not verbose and do not give answers to many questions:
Were these barbarian peoples are closely related
or they were educated random unions of different,
loosely coupled groups? What role in the organization
these barbarian communities played biological affinity
and how these relationships are related with forms of material
culture? And also whether this period
associated with migration to long distances like
this was described by later ancient authors? One such group is
Lombards are ancient Germanic tribe, also known
pawnshops or long beards. At the beginning of the first century AD. e. Roman
historian Velley Paterkul, describing the military expedition
Tiberius, in which he himself participated about 10 AD,
listed among the peoples, defeated by the Romans,
Lombards. Having written that this, people, excelled
even the Germans in savagery. ” Lombards originally
described as a people living on the eastern banks of the Elbe. After early mentions,
Lonhobards disappear from Roman texts. References to them again
appear around 490 AD, but they are in the opinion of the Byzantine
historian Procopius, are Christians under dominance
herula north of the Danube, from where
they then spread by the Roman province of Pannonia,
killing the king of the Rodulis. Pannonia is territorially
was located in the territories modern Hungary, eastern
Austria and former Yugoslavia, north of the historical
region of Dalmatia. In 568 AD. Lombard king
Alboin led ethnically mixed population in Italy,
where they established the kingdom, covering most of
countries before 774 AD. One of the few texts
those times, describing social structure and
the movement of the Lombards, belongs to the Roman bishop
Maria Avanshsky, who argued that the King of the Lombards
Alboin with his army Left and burned his country
Pannonia, and after that together with their women
and occupied all its people Italy in the headlight. ” The etymology of the word fara is ambiguous,
from the value of traveling, to mixed military units. Numerous ancient
cemeteries in Pannonia and Italy VI-VII centuries, as a whole demonstrate
similar funeral customs and inventory, which corresponds
historical migration data Lombards. And in the new study
scientists studied genomic data 63 people from burial places
Solada in western Hungary and Colleen in northern Italy. In this work, the goal was
not ethnicity individual buried
people, and the study of social organization of these communities
in general and their migrations. Because ethnic identification
in those days, was a thing voluntary, taking into account the mass
resettlement of peoples. For example, if you want to be
Lombard, grow beard and forward, but liked
a girl from the Alemanni or herula, fight for these
tribes and unions, disliked went to the vandals and through
Spain to Africa … Although in reality everything could
be much more difficult in dependence on upbringing
and habitat. Although research has also
show that without related connections high status difficult
get. As a result of research,
both cemeteries demonstrate similar genetic sets,
despite the distance between them at 820 km. Most of the buried
were representatives of the Central and Northern Europe with a small
admixture of Finns, and the rest part, less than half, were
Tuscans living in those times in the territory
modern Italy, with an admixture Iberians from the neighboring Iberian
the peninsula. Simplified, they can be divided
on southerners and northerners. As in Solada, and in Collegno,
genetic structure is reflected in the practice of burials,
namely as living members communities represent
people they buried. The burials were organized
around relatives from three generations, mainly
representatives of the North and Central Europe. These individuals are different
from others for a number of other features, such as: access to food
with lots of animals proteins, their graves occupy
prominent places in the cemetery and the oldest buried
people in the cemetery also from the northerners. It is also interesting that on both
cemeteries found horses without goals. All adults and teenagers
had weapons. And women joined the men,
probably along the way to this indicate a variety of
genetic and isotopic indicators they have. Also judging by the nature
burial, the groups were organized around one with a higher
status from northern and central regions of Europe. One of the northerners in Solada
was probably the most high status, because
how his burial was the deepest and included
scales and horse. In addition, since
almost all adults were not local, scientists have suggested,
that it can be historically described headlight during
migration. The remainder of this
the South European of genetic origin
occupies, mainly, south-eastern part of the cemeteries,
they are buried in an accident oriented graves
with straight walls and without funerary inventory,
which indicates that they belong to another
social group, but they migrated together
with northerners, according to isotopes of strontium. Although the absence of funeral
inventory does not mean low social status. Both cemeteries are chronologically
intersect historically documented migration
Lombards from Pannonia to Italy at the end of the sixth
century. Researchers also emphasize,
that the northerners dominate both in Solada and in Collegno,
and that genetic data Lombards are not like
modern genetic sets in Hungary, no
in Northern Italy. Samples of northerners from Solada
and Colleeno genetically closer to the population of the Bronze Age
century north of Hungary, than to Hungary itself. And this may indicate
that the Lombards before migrations lived east of the Rhine
and to the north of the Danube, that consistent with the ancients
texts and parallel related research
with other ancient Germanic tribes. Also confirmed and
the fact that, if there are data on migrations of tribes
and groups, this does not mean, that these or those groups genetically
are homogeneous. And the closer to our time,
self-identification becomes a common occurrence, in the absence
bright external differences. And I do not say goodbye to this,
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10 thoughts on “Археологические и генетические исследования лангобардов и миграции варваров в Европе VI века н. э.

  1. Наконец-то Вы сделали Патреон)
    И спасибо как всегда за интересное и качественное видео!

  2. Начинать надо с гуннов. Именно эти тюрки при Баламбере свергли Германариха и разбили римскую армию в 360 году. У Вернадского четко сказано – благодаря гуннам были спасены от вымирания славяне, которые огерманивались племенами Германариха.

  3. Там всегда были вторжения"варваров".. всегда происходили значительные изменения в европе..

  4. Лангобарды не носили длинных бород, не смотря на название.
    Племя винулов , согласно мифу, переименовал в лангобардов Вотан (Один). Точней, он так с про сони назвал винулских женщин переодетых в воинов и перекинувших вперёд волосы, и Вотан принял эти волосы за бороды. Это произошла в результате хитрости Фрейи, которая обманула Вотана с целью, чтобы тот дал победу именно винулам. И когда Вотан назвал винулов (точней, винульских женщин) лангобардами. Фрейа сказала имя им дал, даруй теперь и победу.

  5. Интересное видео, мало известно о истории таких народов, спасибо.

  6. Расскажи про гетов, готов и их связь с кетами Сибири, казахским племенем кете, киргизским ктай, башкирским катай, киданской империей Ляо, масса кете (массагетами) и древними хеттами.

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